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Dictionary of Islamic Philosophical Terms


al-Tasu‘at:"The group of Nines", i.e. the Enneads, a work by Plotinus (al-Shaikh al-Yunani) in 54 books, arranged and edited by his pupil Porphyry ( Firfuriyus) into 6 groups or sets of 9 (enna) on the ground that according to the Pythagorean theory of number 9 is the perfect number. The importance of the Enneads cannot be overestimated in Muslim Philosophy, for the "Theology of Aristotle" ( Uthulujiya Aristatalis) which was ascribed by the Muslim philosophers to Aristotle as his genuine work was really the running paraphrases of the eight sections of the last 3 "sets" of this work of Plotinus. Muslim philosophy, thus, came to be much dominated by Neoplatonic doctrine and it took very long before the purer Peripateticism, i.e. the philosophy of Aristotle came to surface.

Taḍammun:Implication (S. Afnan, Avicenna: His Life and Works, 93)


Tafṣil: Detailed, detail (pl. tafṣilat)

Tafwiḍ:Seale translates as "delegation", but sees it as equivalent to 'free will'. Normally used as opposite of jabr. Fawwaḍa literally means entrust, to give full power, authorize, delegate. Imam 'Ali uses the term as saying: "man's freedom is between jabr and tafwid", Kanz al-'Ummal, 1: 313; al-Ash'ari also uses; see his Maqalat, 1: 40-1. See also Watt, Free Will ..., mufawwidah.


Tali:The consequent, i.e. that clause of a conjunctive conditional or hypothetical proposition (al-qadiyat al-shartiyat [al-muttasilah]) which follows the antecedent (muqaddam), e.g. the clause "the ground shall be wet" in the statement, "If it rains, the ground shall be wet."

Tajalli: Manifestation, theophany (Ibn 'Arabi)

Tajalliyat:Manifestations, theophanies (Ibn 'Arabi)

Tajrid:Catharsis, separation (from imperfections)

Tajsim al-a‘mal: "Corporealisation or embodiment of actions", the view in Muslim eschatology that man’s god or bad deeds would appear in life after death in bodily forms, beautiful or ugly, and bear witness for or against him.

Tahkim:Subalternation, i.e. the relation between a universal proposition and a particular proposition having the same subject and predicate and of the same quality; the universal proposition in this pair is sometimes called muhkam lahu and the particular proposition muhkam bihi or muhkam. See also al-qadiyatan al-mutadakhilatan.

Takhalkhul:Expansion of a body, e.g. of water into steam; one of the four kinds of ( harakah fi’l-kamm)


al-tarkib al-ittihadi:The organic composition of parts into a whole so that the parts, apart from the whole of which they are the parts, have no independent existence of their own -like the composition of matter (maddah or hayula) and form (surah) in a concrete particular thing or that of differentia (fasl) and genus ( jins, q.v.) in the definition of a thing (al-hadd al-tamm); opposed to al-tarkib al-indimami, see below.

al-tarkib al-inḍimami:The mechanical composition of parts into a whole so that the parts have their own independent existence apart form the whole of which they are the parts -like the conglomeration of bricks, mortar, wood, iron, etc. into a house or into any other mechanical aggregate; opposed to al-tarkib al-ittihadi.

al-tarkib al-mufaṣṣal:The fallacy of composition; see mughalatah tarkib al-mufaṣṣal.

Tasalsul:An infinite succession of events or an infinite regress of causes, both of which, according to Muslim philosophers, are logically inadmissible. Sometimes the term is used to denote the infinite succession or regress in an argument which brings it to a logical impasse.

Taḍadd:Contrariety or the relation of contrary opposition between two universal propositions having the same subject and predicate but differing in quality.

al-Taḍadd al-tahtani:Sub-contrariety or the relation of sub-contrary opposition between two particular propositions having the same subject and predicate, but differing in quality. See also al-qaḍiyatan al-dakhilatan taht al-taḍadd.

al-Ta'rif al-haqiqi:The real definition of a thing, i.e. the definition which gives us the essence or the most essential characteristics of a thing like the definition of man as a rational animal. See also al-hadd al-tamm.

Ta'rif al-majhul bi’l-majhul: Ignotum per ignotius, i.e. the definition of the unknown by the unknown, which in fact is no definition. Every definition which makes uses of obscure language so that it becomes necessary to define further the very terms used in that definition is an example of ta‘rif al-majhul bi’l-majhul.

Ta'lil:Taken generally, the term means causation; but, more specifically, it denotes the mode of inference or reasoning in which we proceed from the cause or the universal and deduce the effect or the particular from it. See also al-burhan al-limi.

Ta'limi:Quantitative, i.e. that which pertains to the size, figure, volume or dimensions of a thing or to its number and countable parts.

al-Tafsir:The Interpretation: The Arabic title given sometimes to the second of Aristotle’s books on logic. See Bari Irminiyas.

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