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  • 11/19/2012

Role of Religious Deviation in Leading to Karbala (Part2)

 imam hussein (a.s)

Unlawfulness of breach of allegiance, namely fulfilling a pledge is heavily underlined in Islam. Since breaking a pledge or an allegiance is prohibited seriously, it stands to reason how much the role of which in political affairs can be positive. But if the allegiance were not sworn to caliphs like Yazid or it were breached and consequently Community was 'spoiled', would it again follow the principle of unlawfulness of breach of allegiance or would it basically be an exception to the rule? As already alluded to, the Umayyad caliphs and later those of Banu‘Abbas by manipulating such concepts distorted and unconditionally compelled the people to acquiesce to their sovereignty.

As stated by Ibn Ishaq, they were doing prayers (perhaps in al-Hara-m mosque) when they noticed that Shimr Ibn Dhil-Djawshan had raised his hands saying: “O Allah! You are well-aware of my nobleness, so forgive me.”‌

“I told him, added Ibn Ishaq, how could you ever be forgiven whereas you have aided and abetted in murdering the Prophet’s son?”‌

“What have we preformed?”‌ Shimr reacted.

“It was the mandates of our commanders and we could in no way defy them”‌. Had we disobeyed "we would be far more inferior to water carrier beasts.”‌ [3]

Apprehending him, Ibn Ziyad told Muslim Ibn ‘Aqil: “O outlaw! You have seceded from your Imam and have sowed the seeds of discord among Muslims.”‌ [4]

Muslim who never yielded to such a digression, riposted that Mu‘awiya not only did not procure the caliphate through the consensus of opinions of the nation at all, but he overcame the Holy Prophet’s successor through deception and usurped his caliphate.

When Imam Hussein was about to leave Mecca, the deputies of ‘Amr Ibn Sa‘id Ibn ‘A-s, the governor, said, “Do you not fear from Allah for seceding from the Muslim congregation and for causing disunion among the nation?”‌ [5]

“We have never ever ignored disobeying Imam, nor have we seceded from Community”‌ affirmed ‘Amr Ibn Hadjdjaj, a commander of Ibn Ziyad’s.[6]

Advising Ibn Ziyad’s army, he added, “Not ever fail to remember obedience and union and at no time do you doubt about killing the one seceding from the religion and being at variance with Imam (ruler).”‌ [7]

Figures like ‘Abd Allah Ibn ‘Umar who was among the Sunnites religious jurisprudents and hadith-narrators, had imagined that if entire people acquiesced to swear the oath of allegiance to Yazid, they would consent too.

He had given his assurance to Mu‘awiya, “I shall oppose you unless people all swear allegiance to your son, Yazid."[8] He also had addressed Imam as saying, “Do cause not disunion among Muslims!”‌[9]

Such individuals as ‘Umar and ‘Abd al-Rahma-n Ibn ‘Awf’s daughter had written to Imam to regard obedience with reverence and treat Community and its upholding as urgent.[10]

Another religious deviation in the Islamic community was “belief in fatalism”‌. Previous to the event of Karbala- this belief has been misused. In Early Islamic Era, however, Mu‘awiya had been the reviver of which or according to Abu- Hila-l ‘Askari- he was the initiator of which.[11] Referring to the fact that Mu‘awiya is the founder of “fatalism”‌, Qadi- ‘Abd al-Djabba-r has quoted Mu‘awiya making as remarkable remarks[12] as follows, “This matter concerning Yazid is a destiny from among Divine destinies and no one has any volition in this regard.”‌ [13]

‘Ubayd Alla-h Ibn Ziyad asked Imam Sadjd (A.S), “Was Allah not the one who killed ‘Ali- Akbar?”‌

Imam’s response was: “I had an elder brother whom people killed.”‌[14]

Once ‘Umar Ibn Sa‘d was objected why he killed Imam Hussein solely for the sake of the Ray governorship, he replied that such an affair had been predestined.[15]

When alive, Ka‘b al-Ahba-r had been foretelling that under no conditions would authority be secured by the Ha-shimites, (although later both the ‘Abba-sids and ‘Alawites could secure it as an instance in Tabarista-n). It has been quoted from ‘Abd Alla-h Ibn ‘Umar as well, as saying: "Any time you realized that one from the Ha-shimites has secured the authority, conclude that it is that end of the world.”‌ [16]


References:

[3] Tardjamat al-imam Hussein, p.197; al-Imama wa l-siyasa, Lisan al-mizan, vol.III, p.151 (Al-Humayr al-saqqa’at)

[4] al-Futuh, bol.5, p.98

[5] Tarikh al-tabari, vol.IV, p. 289; such adverse publicity had made, the majority of people especially those from Damascus to consider Imam Hussein as an outsider (the one seceding) and to accuse him of heresy.

[6] Tarikh al-tabari, p. 275

[7] Ibid. p. 331

[8] Tardjamat Imam Hussein, p. 167, as described by Mu‘awiya, Ibn ‘Umar was a coward (Ibn A‘tham, vol.IV, p. 260). He advised Imam Hussein saying “Do not rise up, be patient, compromise as others did. See also al-Futu-h, vol.V, p. 39; Tardjamat al- Imam Hussein, p. 166.

[9] al-Kamil fi l-tarikh, vol.IV, p. 17

[10] Tardjamat Imam Hussein, p. 167

[11] al-Awa’i'l, Askari, vol.II, p. 125

[12] Fadl al-I‘tizal wa tabaqat al-mu‘tazila, p. 143

[13] al-Imama walsiyasa, vol.I, pp. 183, 187

[14] Tardjamat  Imam Hussein, p. 188

[15] Tabaqat al-kubra, vol.V, p. 148

[16] Ibn ‘Asakir,Tardjamat  Imam Hussein, p. 193


Source: An extract from 'History of the Caliphs' by Rasul Jafarian


Other links:

The Commemoration of Imam Hussein (A.S), A School for the Seekers of the Truth

Did Imam Imam Hussein (A.S) Know He Would Be killed?

Karbala, the Pleasure of Allah

What is Ashura?

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