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  • 12/21/2011

Achaemenid Royal Women and Marriage Alliances

anahid

Marriage alliances have always been used to create political unions. Here is how the ancient Achaemenids did it. Darius is an exception amongst the ancient kings because of his many marriages to several royal and aristocratic women. It is suggested that following the palace events regarding Bardia and the Magi Geomatt and Darius’ take over, he married all the princesses in the royal household to stop the birth of any children from these women and therefore end any claim to the throne. All information mentioned below is from the Greek sources and the unnamed brides from these sources have a question mark in front of them.

 

The Early Persian Kings

Cambyses I, married to Mandane, daughter of Astyages (Hdt. 1. 107. 1; Xen. Cyr. 1. 2. 1)

Cyrus II, married to Amytis?, daughter of Astyages ( FGrH 688 F 9 (2)), and

Cassandane, daughter of Pharnaspes (Hdt. 3. 1. 1)

Cambyses II, married to Roxane ( FGrH 688 F 13 (12)), two sisters? (Hdt. 3. 31. 1), and

Phaidyme?, daughter of Otanes (Hdt. 3. 68. 3)

Cambyses I, married to Mandane, daughter of Astyages (Hdt. 1. 107. 1; Xen. Cyr. 1. 2. 1)

Cyrus II, married to Amytis?, daughter of Astyages ( FGrH 688 F 9 (2)), and

Cassandane, daughter of Pharnaspes (Hdt. 3. 1. 1)

Cambyses II, married to Roxane ( FGrH 688 F 13 (12)), two sisters? (Hdt. 3. 31. 1), and

Phaidyme?, daughter of Otanes (Hdt. 3. 68. 3)

The Marriage Alliances of Darius I

Alliances between Darius I and Royal Daughters, Darius I was married to Atossa, Artystone, Parmys (Hdt. 3. 88. 2-3)

Interalliances between Darius I or Members of his Immediate Family, and the Family of Gobryas and Otanes

Darius, married to a daughter of Gobryas (Hdt. 7. 2. 2)

Sister of Darius, married to Gobryas (Hdt. 7. 5. 1)

Daughter of Darius, Artazostre, married to Mardonius, son of Gobryas (Hdt. 6. 43. 1; PFa 5)

Darius, married to Phaidyme, daughter of Otanes (Hdt. 3. 88. 4)

Sister of Darius, married to Otanes (Hdt. 7. 82)

Son of Darius, Xerxes, married to Amestris, daughter of Otanes (Hdt. 7. 61. 2)

3. Interfamilial Alliance Darius, married to Phratagune, daughter of Artanes (Halt. 7. 224. 2)

The Alliances of Achaemenid Kings after Darius I (heirs presumptive appear in brackets)

Xerxes, married to Amestris (Hdt. 7 61. 2)

( Darius), married to Artaynte (Hdt. 9. 108. 1)

Artaxerxes I, married to Damaspia ( FGrH 688 F 15 (44))

Xerxes II, married(?) to? ( FGrH 688 F 15 (45))

Darius II, married to Parysatis ( FGrH 688 F 15 (44))

Artaxerxes II, married to Stateira, daughter of Hydarnes ( FGrH 688 F 15 (53))

( Darius), married to? ( Plut. Art. 29. 8)

Artaxerxes III, married to a sister's daughter (Val. Max. 9. 2, ext. 7), married to a daughter of Oxathres (Curt. 3. 13. 13)

Arses, married to? ( FGrH 690 F 14)

Darius III, married to Stateira ( Plut. Alex. 30. 3; Curt. 4. 10. 2), married to a daughter of Pharnaces (DS 17. 21. 3)

 

Alliances of Royal Daughters

 

Daughters of Darius I

Artazostre, married to Mardonius (Hdt. 6. 43. 1; PFa 5)

Mandane, married to Artayktes?, son of Cherasmis (DS 11. 57. 1; Phanias ap. Plut. Them. 13. 2; Hdt. 7. 78)

Unnamed daughter, married to Daurises (Hdt. 5. 116; 5. 121)

Unnamed daughter, married to Hymaees (Hdt. 5. 116; 5. 122)

Unnamed daughter, married to Artokhmes (Hdt. 7. 73)

Iإ،tin, married to Bakeya (PF 823)

Panduإ،aإ،إ،a, married to Baganإ،akka (PF 784, PF-NN 1556)

Rhodogune?, married to? ( Jerome, adv. Jovinianum 1. 45 ( Migne, PL 23 ( 1883), 287))

 

Daughters of Xerxes

Amytis, married to Megabyxos, son of Zopryos ( FGrH 688 F 13 (20. 22))

Rhodogune, married to? ( FGrH 688 F 13 (20))

Ratahإ،ah, married to? ( Evetts, ( 1892), 57-8)

Daughter of Artaxerxes I

Parysatis, married to Ochus ( Darius II) ( FGrH 688 F 15 (44))

 

Daughter of Darius II

Amestris, married to Teritouchmes, son of Hydarnes ( FGrH 688 F 15 (53))

Daughters of Artaxerxes II

Atossa, married to Artaxerxes? ( Plut. Art. 23. 5-6)

Amestris, married to Artaxerxes? ( Plut. Art. 23. 6)

Rhodogune, married to Orontas ( Xen. an. 2. 4. 8; 3. 4. 31)

Apame, married to Pharnabazos ( Plut. Art. 27. 7)

Unnamed daughter, married to Tissaphernes (DS 14. 26. 4)

 

Daughters of Artaxerxes III

Parysatis, married to Alexander III (Curt. 3. 13. 12; Arr. an. 7. 4. 4)

Unnamed daughter, married to? (Curt. 3. 13. 12)

Unnamed daughter, married to? (Curt. 3. 13. 12)

 

Daughters of Darius III

Drypetis, married to Hephaistion ( Arr. an. 7. 4. 5)

Stateira, married to Alexander ( Arr. an. 7. 4. 4)

Unnamed daughter, married to Mithridates/ Spithrobates (DS 17. 20. 2)


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