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  • 11/9/2011

Peshawar Nights: Truthful Ones refers to Muhammad and Ali

Eighth Session-part 10

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*Caliph's returning Fadak to descendants of Fatima

*Proof that Fadak had been given to Fatima

*Contention that Abu Bakr acted according to "verse of evidence" and its reply

*To demand witnesses from occupants was against religious law

*Rejecting witness of Fatima was against religious law

*'Truthful Ones' refers to Muhammad and Ali

 

CALIPH'S RETURNING FADAK TO DESCENDANTS OF FATIMA

The well known traditionist and historian of Medina, Allama Samhudi (died 911 A.H.), in his Ta'rikhu'l-Medina and Yaqut Bin Abdullah Rumi in his Mu'ajamu'l-Buldan, state that during his caliphate, Abu Bakr took possession of Fadak. Umar, during his reign, returned it to Ali and Abbas. If Abu Bakr occupied it on the order of the Holy Prophet and considered it the property of the Muslims, on what principle did Umar entrust the property of all the Muslims to a single individual?

Sheikh: Perhaps his intention in releasing the property to a single individual was that it would remain in the custody of the Muslims.

Well-Wisher: Sometimes a witness is more clever than the plaintiff for whom he gives evidence. The Caliph had no such idea. If the property had been returned for the expenses of the Muslims, it must have been so recorded in history. But all your prominent historians write that it was released in favor of Ali and Abbas. Ali accepted Fadak as its rightful heir, not as an individual Muslim. One Muslim may not possess the property of all the Muslims.

 

RETURNING FADAK BY UMAR IBN ABDU'L-AZIZ

Sheikh: Perhaps the reference is to Umar Ibn Abdu'l-Aziz.

Well-Wisher: Ali and Abbas were not alive during the time of Umar Bin Abdu'l-Aziz. That is a separate story. Allama Samhudi in his Ta'rikhu'l-Medina and Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in his Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha, vol. IV, p. 81, narrate from Abu Bakr Jauhari that when Umar Bin Abdu'l-Aziz occupied the seat of the caliphate, he wrote to his governor at Medina to return Fadak to the descendants of Fatima. Accordingly, he called Hasan Bin Hasanu'l-Mujtaba (and according to some reports he called Imam Ali Ibnu'l-Husain) and returned Fadak to him.

Ibn Abi'l-Hadid writes about it in his Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha, vol. IV, p.81, in the following words: "This was the first property which was snatched away unjustly and then was given over to the descendants of Fatima by Umar Bin Abdu'l-Aziz." It remained in their possession for a long time until Caliph Yazid Ibn Abdu'l-Malik usurped it again. Then the Bani Umayya occupied it. When the caliphate went to the Bani Abbas, the first Abbasid Caliph, Abdullah Saffa, entrusted Fadak to the descendants of Imam Hasan, who distributed its income, according to the rights of inheritance, to the descendants of Fatima.

 

RETURNING FADAK TO DESCENDANTS OF FATIMA BY ABDULLAH MAHDI AND MAMUN, THE ABBASID

When Mansur persecuted the descendants of Imam Hasan, he snatched away Fadak from them again. When his son, Mahdi, became the caliph, he returned it to them. When Musa bin Hadi became the caliph, he again usurped Fadak. When Mamunu'r-Rashid the Abbasid occupied the seat of the caliphate, he ordered Fadak to be released to the descendants of Ali.

Yaqut Hamawi quotes Mamun's order in his Mu'ajamu'l-Buldan. Mamun wrote to his governor at Medina: "Verily, the Holy Prophet of Allah bequeathed Fadak to his daughter, Fatima. This fact was established and commonly known to the descendants of the Holy Prophet."

The well known poet, Di'bal Khuza'i, was also present at this time. He recited some couplets, the first of which means: "Today we are all happy and rejoicing. Mamun has returned Fadak to the Bani Hashim."

 

PROOF THAT FADAK HAD BEEN GIVEN TO FATIMA

It has been proved by irrefutable arguments that Fadak had been given by the Holy Prophet to Fatima. It was usurped without any justification. But later caliphs, on grounds of justice or for political considerations, returned it to the descendants of that oppressed lady.

Hafiz: If Fadak was bestowed upon her as a gift, why did she claim it as her heritage and not say anything about a gift?

Well-Wisher: At first she claimed it as a gift. But when witnesses were required from the property's occupants, in contradiction to the injunction of the Holy Prophet of Islam, she produced witnesses. Their evidence was rejected. She was thereby forced to seek protection under the law of inheritance.

Hafiz; I am afraid you are mistaken. We have not seen any record of Fatima's claim that Fadak was a gift.

Well-Wisher: No, I am not mistaken. This fact is recorded not only in Shia books, but also in those written by your own prominent ulema. It is recorded in Siratu'l-Halabiyya, p.39, compiled by Ali Bin Burhanu'd-din Halabi Shafi'i (died 1044 A.H.) that at first Fatima remonstrated with Abu Bakr that she owned Fadak and that it had been given to her by the Holy Prophet of Allah. Since witnesses were not available, she was forced to claim her right according to the law of inheritance.

Also Imam Fakhru'd-din Razi in his Tafsir-e-Kabir concerning the claim of Fatima; Yaqut Hamawi in his Mu'ajamu'l-Buldan; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid Mu'tazali in Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha, vol.IV, p. 80, from Abu Bakr Jauhari and the fanatical Ibn Hajar in Sawa'iq-e-Muhriqa, p.21, under the heading Shuhubhat-e-Rafza, VII Shubha, narrate that the first claim of Fatima was that Fadak had been a gift. When her witnesses were rejected, she was much pained and said in anger that she would not talk to Abu Bakr and Umar again.

And so it was...she never saw them again and did not speak to them. When the time of her demise approached, she specified in her will that none of these people was to take part in her funeral prayers. Her uncle, Abbas, offered the funeral prayers, and she was laid to rest at night. According to Shia sources and according to the statements of the Holy Imams, Ali performed the funeral prayers.

 

CONTENTION THAT ABU BAKR ACTED ACCORDING TO "VERSE OF EVIDENCE" AND ITS REPLY

Hafiz: Of course there is no doubt that Fatima was very displeased, but Abu Bakr Siddiq is not much to blame. He was obliged to act according to the manifest code of religion. Since the "Verse of Evidence" is of general significance, and a claimant must produce two men, or one man and two women, or four women as witnesses, and since in this case the number of witnesses was not sufficient, the Caliph could not give judgment in favor of Fatima.

Well-Wisher: Hafiz Sahib has said that the Caliph was obliged to act according to religious ordinances, and since complete evidence was not available he could not pronounce judgment. I will respond to his point, and I ask you to be fair in evaluating my comment.

 

TO DEMAND WITNESSES FROM OCCUPANTS WAS AGAINST RELIGIOUS LAW

First, you said Abu Bakr was 'compelled under religious law.' Will you please tell me which religious ordinance demands witnesses from one who is in possession of the property? It has been proved that Fatima was in possession of Fadak. As reported by all your ulema, Abu Bakr's demanding witnesses from her was against religious law. Does our religious law not say that witnesses should be produced by the plaintiff and not by the holder of the property?

Second, nobody denies the general significance of the 'Verse of Evidence', but it also has a specific significance.

Hafiz: What do you mean by its specific significance?

Well-Wisher: The proof for this is the report recorded in your authentic books of hadith, regarding Khazima Ibn Thabit. He gave evidence in support of the Holy Prophet in a case concerning the sale of a horse. An Arab had made a claim against the Holy Prophet and his (Khazima's) single evidence was considered sufficient. The Holy Prophet gave him the title of Dhu'sh-Shahadatain because he was regarded as being equal to two just witnesses. This example shows that the 'Verse of Evidence' allows for exceptions under some circumstances. When Khazima, an individual believer and companion from among the community, was made an exception to the verse, Ali and Fatima who were infallible according to the 'Verse of Purity' were in a better position to enjoy this exception. They were definitely free from all falsehood. To reject their evidence was to reject the evidence of Allah.

 

REJECTING WITNESSES OF FATIMA WAS AGAINST RELIGIOUS LAW

Hazrat Fatima claimed that Fadak was bestowed upon her as a gift by her father and that it was in her possession and control during the Holy Prophet's lifetime. She was asked to furnish witnesses. She produced Amiru'l-Mu'minin Ali Bin Abi Talib and Hasan and Hussein as her witnesses. But their evidence was rejected. Was this action not unjust? It is beyond comprehension how anybody could reject Ali's testimony. Allah Almighty says in the Holy Qur'an that we should be with Ali, that is, we should follow him. Zaid-e-Adl became the embodiment of truth because of his extreme truthfulness. Similarly, Ali was also called 'the truthful,' as Allah says: "O you who believe! be careful of (your duty to) Allah, and be with the truthful ones." (9:119) "Truthful ones" refers to the Prophet Muhammad, Ali, and the holy Ahle Bait.

 

"TRUTHFUL ONES" REFERS TO MUHAMMAD AND ALI

Hafiz: How does this verse prove your view, which may mean that to follow Ali is obligatory for us?

Well-Wisher: (1) Your prominent scholars have written in their books and commentaries that this verse was revealed in praise of Muhammad and Ali. "The truthful ones" refers to these two holy men, and according to some reports it means Ali; other reports say that it refers to the progeny of the Holy Prophet.

Imam Tha'labi in the commentary Kashfu'l-Bayan, Jalalu'd-din Suyuti reporting from Ibn Abbas in his Durru'l-Manthur, Hafiz Abu Sa'id Abdu'l-Malik Bin Muhammad Khargushi reporting from Asma'is in his Sharafu'l-Mustafa, and Hafiz Abu Nu'aim Ispahani in his Hilyatu'l-Auliya narrate that the Holy Prophet said: "These truthful ones are Muhammad and Ali."

Sheikh Sulayman Hanafi in his Yanabiu'l-Mawadda, ch. 39, p.1191, reporting from Muwaffaq Bin Ahmad Khawarizmi, Hafiz Abu Nu'aim Ispahani, and Hamwaini relates on the authority of Ibn Abbas, who said: "In this verse 'the truthful ones' are Muhammad and his holy descendants."

And Sheikhu'l-Islam Ibrahim Bin Muhammad Hamwaini, one of your eminent scholars, in his Fara'idu's-Simtain, Muhammad Bin Yusuf Ganji Shafi'i in his Kifayatu't-Talib, ch. 62, and Muhadith Sham in his Ta'rikh, reporting from his sources, write: "With the truthful ones, that is, with Ali Bin Abi Talib."

(2) Allah says: "And he who brings the truth, and he who accepts it as the truth - these are they that guard (against evil)." (39:33)

Jalalu'd-din Suyuti in Durru'l-Manthur, Hafiz Ibn Mardawiyya in Manaqib, Hafiz Abu Nu'aim in Hilyatu'l-Auliya, Muhammad Bin Yusuf Ganji Shafi'i in Kifayatu't-Talib, ch.62, and Ibn Asakir in his Ta'rikh, reporting from a selection of commentators, narrate the following on the authority of Ibn Abbas and Mujahid:

"'He who brings the truth' is Muhammad, and 'he who testifies to it' is Ali Bin Abi Talib."

(3) Allah says in chapter of Hadid (Iron) of the Holy Qur'an: "And (as for) those who believe in Allah and his apostles, these it is who are the truthful and the faithful ones in the sight of their Lord; they shall have their reward and their light." (57:19)

Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in his Musnad and Hafiz Abu Nu'aim Ispahani in Manazil Mina'l-Qur'an Fi Ali narrate on the authority of Ibn Abbas that this holy verse was revealed in praise of Ali referring to him as being among the truthful ones.

(4) In the Chapter Nisa (Women) Allah says: "And whoever obeys Allah and the Apostle, these are with those upon whom Allah has bestowed favors from among the prophets and the truthful and the martyrs and the good, and a goodly company are they." (4:69)

In this verse also the truthful ones refers to Ali. There are many hadith narrated by your ulema and ours, indicating that Ali was the truthful one of the community and in fact the most exalted among the truthful ones.

 

ALI IS MOST EXALTED AMONG THE TRUTHFUL ONES

Many of your prominent ulema have written in their books that the Holy Prophet said: "There are three great truthful ones: - Hizqil, the Believer of the people of Pharaoh; Habib Najjar of the Sura Yasin, and Ali Bin Abi Talib, who is superior to them all." The following have all recorded this hadith: Imam Fakhru'd-din Razi in his Tafsir Kabir; Imam Tha'labi in Kashfu'l-Bayan; Jalalu'd-din Suyuti in Durru'l-Manthur; Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal in the Musnad; Ibn Shirwaih in Firdaus; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha, vol. II, p.451; Ibn Maghazili Shafi'i in Manaqib; and Ibn Hajar Makki in Sawa'iq-e-Muhriqa (30th hadith out of the 40 hadith that he has commented on concerning the virtues of Ali) quoting from Bukhari, who reports from Ibn Abbas, with the exception of the last phrase.

Also Sheikh Sulayman Balkhi in his Yanabiu'l-Mawadda, ch. 42, quoting from the Musnad of Imam Hanbal; Abu Nu'aim Ibn Maghazili Shafi'i; the great orator Khawarizmi, quoting from Abu Laila and Abu Ayyub Ansari, in his Manaqib; Ibn Hajar in his Sawa'iq (and a host of others) narrate that the Holy Prophet said: "There are three truthful ones: - Habib Najjar, the Believer of the people of the Chapter Yasin who said, 'O people! follow the prophets;' Hizqil, the believer of the people of Pharaoh, who said, 'Do you kill a man who worships Allah?', and Ali Ibn Abi Talib, who is the most exalted of them all."

People are astounded to see how your understanding is subdued by your perversity. You yourselves prove with various hadith in conformity with the Holy Qur'an, that Ali occupied the highest rank among the truthful ones and yet you call others as "siddiq" (truthful) although not a single verse has been reported about their being truthful.

Gentlemen! Please be just. Was it proper to reject the evidence of the person whom Allah calls "siddiq" in the Qur'an, one whom we have been commanded to follow?

 

ALI IS WITH TRUTH AND WITH THE QUR'AN

The Holy Prophet said: "Ali is always with truth and truth revolves round Ali." Khatib Baghdadi in his Ta'rikh, vol. IV, p. 321, Hafiz Ibn Mardawiyya in Manaqib, Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal in Masnad, Fakhru'd-din Razi in Tafsir-e-Kabir, vol.I, p. 111, Ibn Hajar Makki in Jam'u's-Saghir, vol.II, pp. 74,75, 140 and Sawa'iq-e-Muhriqa, ch.IX,Fasl 11, hadith 21, narrating from Umme Salma and Ibn Abbas also in Yanabiu'l-Mawadda, ch. 65, p. 185, taking from Jam'u's-Saghir of Jalalu'd-din Suyuti, in addition, in Ta'rikhu'l-Khulafa, p.116, Faizu'l-Qadir, vol. IV, p. 358, narrating from Ibn Abbas Manaqibu's-Sabi'in, p. 237, hadith 44 quoting from the author of Firdaus; Sawa'iq-e-Muhriqa, ch.59, Part 2, p. 238, narrating from Umme Salma and Muhammad Bin Yusuf Ganji Shafi'i in Kifayatu't-Talib, some of them narrating from Umme Salma, some from A'yesha and some from Muhammad Bin Abu Bakr, all narrate that they heard the Holy Prophet saying: "Ali is with the Qur'an and the Qur'an is with Ali; there will never be a difference between the two, and the two will not separate from each other until they reach me at the pool of Kauthar."

Some narrators have reported these words: "The right is always with Ali, and Ali is always with the right. There will be no difference between the two, and the two will not be separate from each other."

Ibn Hajar writes in Sawa'iq-e-Muhriqa, ch. 9, Part 2, p. 77, that the Holy Prophet on his deathbed, said: " I leave behind with you two things: The book of Allah and my progeny, my Ahle Bait." Then, holding Ali's hand, he raised it and said: "This Ali is with the Qur'an, and the Qur'an is with Ali. The two will not separate from each other till they reach me at the pool of Kauthar. Then I will ask each of them about the matter of succession."

Also it is generally narrated that the Prophet said: "Ali is with the right and the right is always with Ali. They revolve around each other."

Sibt Ibn Jauzi, in Tadhkirat-e-Khawasu'l-Umma, p.20, in connection with the 'Hadith of Ghadir', narrates that the Holy Prophet said: "Let the right move round Ali, in whatever direction he moves." Sibt commenting on this says: "This hadith proves that if there is any difference between Ali and any other companion, the right will certainly be with Ali."

 

OBEDIENCE TO ALI IS OBEDIENCE TO ALLAH AND HIS HOLY PROPHET

It is recorded in the books which have been mentioned and in other authentic books of yours that the Holy Prophet often said: "He who obeys Ali verily obeys me, and he who obeys me verily obeys Allah. He who disobeys Ali verily disobeys me, and he who disobeys me verily disobeys Allah." Abu'l-Fath Muhammad Bin Abdu'l-Karim Shahrastani reports in his Milal-wa-Nihal that the Holy Prophet said: "The reality is that Ali is always on the right, and those who follow him are on the right."

With all these explicit reports, which are recorded in your own authentic books, wasn't refusing to agree with Ali the same as refusing to agree with the Holy Prophet?

Source: al-islam.org


Other Links:

Peshawar Nights: Characteristics of the Companions  

Peshawar Nights: Hadith that both Hasan and Hussein are foremost of youth of paradise

Peshawar Nights: Holy Prophet preferred Ali to all other men 

Peshawar Nights: Argument from the Verse of Cave and its reply  

Peshawar Nights: 300 Hundred verses in praise of Ali  

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