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  • 11/7/2011

Peshawar Nights: Ghadir hadith and its nature

Eighth Session-part 4

imam

*Ghadir hadith and its nature

*Some of companions were slaves to their wishes and turned against truth

*Imam Ghazali's view about companions breaking the pledge taken on the day of Ghadir‌e‌Khum

*Reference to Ibn Iqda's status

*Reference to Tabari's death

*Nisa'i's murder

 

GHADIR HADITH AND ITS NATURE

All the Shia and Sunni ulema acknowledge that, in the 10th of the Hijra year, the Prophet of Allah, returning from his last pilgrimage, gathered together all his companions at Ghadir-e-Khum on the 18th of Dhi'l-Hijja. Some of those who had gone ahead were called back by order of the Holy Prophet and those who had lagged behind were awaited. Most of your ulema and the historians and the Shia sources give the figure of 70,000 people there, and some of your other ulema, for instance Tha'labi in his Tafsir, Sibt Ibn Jauzi in his Tadhkirat'u- Khasa'isi'l-Umma fi Ma'rifati'l-A'imma and others have written that there were 120,000 people gathered there. The Holy Prophet ordered a pulpit to be prepared. He mounted the pulpit and delivered a long sermon, a greater part of which contained the virtues and merits of the Commander of the Faithful. He recited most of the verses, which had been revealed in praise of Ali and reminded the people of the holy rank of the vicegerency of the Commander of the Faithful.

Then the Holy Prophet said, "O you people! Have I not the greater claim than you have on your lives?" The reference is to the holy verse "The Prophet has a greater claim on the faithful than they have on themselves." (33:6)

The crowd with one voice shouted "Certainly, O messenger of Allah!" Then the Holy Prophet declared: "Of whomsoever I am the maula, (master) this Ali is his maula." After this he raised his hand and prayed to Allah. "O Allah, be you a friend to him who is a friend to him (that is, Ali) and be an enemy to him who is an enemy to him (Ali). Help him who helps him and forsake him who forsakes him.

Then a tent was pitched by order of the Holy Prophet who ordered the Commander of the Faithful, Ali to sit in the tent. The whole umma was commanded to offer bai'at (allegiance) to Ali. The Holy Prophet said that he gave this instruction in compliance with the command of Allah. The first one to offer allegiance on that day was Umar. Then Abu Bakr, Uthman, Talha, and Zubair followed suit, and all these people continued offering allegiance for three days (i.e., while the Holy Prophet remained there).

Hafiz: Can you believe that an event of such importance occurred as claimed by you and that none of the prominent ulema have reported it?

Well-Wisher: I did not expect such a statement from you. The Ghadir-e-Khum affair is as clear as day and no one but a bigoted and obstinate person would invite ignominy by denying such an event. This important matter has been recorded by all your pious ulema in their authentic books. I should like to mention here some of the names of the authors and their books so that you may know that all your eminent ulema have relied on this hadith.

1. Imam Fakhru'd-Din Razi - Tafsir-e-Kabir Mafatihu'l-Ghaib.

2. Imam Ahmad Tha'labi - Tafsir-e-Kashfu'l-Bayan.

3. Jalalu'd-Din Suyuti - Tafsir-e-Durru'l-Manthur.

4. Abu'l-Hasan Ali Bin Ahmad Wahidi Nishapuri - Asbabu'n-

Nuzul.

5. Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari - Tafsiru'l-Kabir.

6. Hafiz Abu Nu'aim Ispahani - Ma Nazal Mina'l-Qur'an fi Ali and

Hilyatu'l-Auliya.

7. Muhammad Bin Isma'il Bukhari - Ta'rikh, Vol.1, p.375.

8. Muslim Bin Hajjaj Nishapuri - Sahih, Vol.2, p.325.

9. Abu Dawud Sijistani - Sunan.

11. Hafiz Ibnu'l-Iqda - Kitabu'l-Wilaya.

12. Ibn Kathir Shafi'i Damishqi - Ta'rikh.

13. Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal - Vol.4, pp.281&371.

14. Abu Hamid Muhammad Bin Muhammad Al-Ghazali - Sirru'l-Alamin.

15. Ibn Abdu'l-Birr - Isti'ab.

16. Muhammad Bin Talha Shafi'i - Matalibu's-Su'ul, p.16.

17. Ibn Maghazili Faqih Shafi'i - Manaqib.

18. Nuru'-d-Din Bin Sabbagh Maliki - Fusulu'l-Muhimma.

19. Husain Bin Mas'ud Baghawi - Masabihu's-Sunna.

20. Abu'l-Mu'ayyid Muwafiq Bin Ahmad Khatib Khawarizmi - Manaqib.

21. Majdu'd-Din Bin Athir Muhammad Bin Muhammad Shaibani -am'u'l-Usul.

22. Hafiz Abu Abdu'r-Rahman Ahmad Bin Ali Nisa'i - Khasa'isu'l-Alawi and Sunan.

23. Sulayman Balkhi Hanafi - Yanabiu'l-Mawadda, Ch. IV.

24. Shahabu'd-din Ahmad Bin Hajar Makki - Sawa'iq Muhriqa and Kitabu'l-Manhu'l-Malakiyya, particularly Sawa'iq, Part 1, p.25. In spite of his extreme fanaticism, he says: "This is a true hadith; its veracity cannot be doubted. Verily it has been narrated by Tirmidhi, Nisa'i and Ahmad, and if studied, its sources are sound enough."

25. Muhammad Bin Yazid Hafiz Ibn Maja Qazwini - Sunan.

26. Hafiz Abu Abdullah Muhammad Bin Abdullah Hakim Nishapuri-Mustadrak.

27. Hafiz Sulayman Ibn Ahmad Tabrani - Ausat.

28. Ibn Athir Jazari - Usudu'l-Ghaiba.

29. Yusuf Sibt Ibn Jauzi - Tadhkiratu'l-Khasa'isu'l-Umma, p. 17.

30. Abu Umar Ahmad Bin Abd Rabbih - Iqdu'l-Farid.

31. Allama Samhudi - Jawahiru'l-Iqdain.

32. Ibn Taimiyya Ahmad Bin Abdu'l-Halim - Minhaju's-Sunna.

33. Ibn Hajar Asqalani - Fathu'l-Bari and Tahdhibu't-Tahdhib.

34. Abdu'l-Qasim Muhammad Bin Umar Jarullah Zamakhshari - Rabiu'l-Abrar.

35. Abu Sa'id Sijistani - Kitabu'd-Darayab Fi hadithi'l-Wilaya.

36. Ubaidullah Bin Abdullah Haskani - Du'atu'l-Huda Ila Ada Haqqi'l-Muwala.

37. Razin Bin Mu'awiya Al-Abdari - Jam Bainu's-Sahihi's-Sitta.

38. Imam Fakhru'd-din Razi says in Kitabu'l-Arba'in that the whole Community unanimously confirms this hadith.

39. Muqibili - hadithu'l-Mutawatira.

40. Suyuti - Ta'rikhu'l-Khulafa.

41. Mir Seyyed Ali Hamadani - Mawaddatu'l-Qurba.

42. Abul Fath Nazari - Khasa'es'u'l-Alavi

43. Khwaja Parsa Bukhari - Faslu'l-Khitab

44. Jamaluddin Shirazi - Kitabu'l-Araba'in

45. Abdul Ra'ufu'l-Manavi - Faizu'l-Qadir fi Sharh-i-Jame'u's-Saghir

46. Muhammad bin Yusuf Ganji Shafi'i - Kifayatu't-Talib, Part. 1

47. Yahya Bin Sharaf-Nauvi - Tehzibu'l-Asma wa'l-Lughat

48. Ibrahim bin Muhammad Hamwaini - Fara'adu's-Simtoun

49. Qazi Fazlullah bin Ruzhahan - Ibtalu'l-Batil

50. Shamsuddin Muhammad bin Ahmad Sharbini - Siraju'l-Munir

51. Abul Fath Shahristani Shafi'i - Milal wa'n-Nihal

52. Hafiz Abu Bakr Khatib Baghdadi - Tarikh

53. Hafiz Ibn Asakir abul Qasim Damishqi - Tarikh-i-Kabir

54. Ibn Abi'l-Hadid Mutazali - Sharhe Nahju'l-Balagha

55. Ala'uddin Samnani -Urwatu'l-Wuthqah

56. Ibn Khaldun - Muqaddima

57. Molvi Ali Muttaqi Hindi - Kanzu'l-Ummal

58. Shamsuddin Abul Khair Damishqi - Asnu Matalib

59. Syed Sharif Hanafi Jurjani - Sharh-i-Mawaqit

60. Nizamuddin Nishapuri - Tafsir-i-Ghara'ibu'l-Qur'an

 

HADITH OF GHADIR RELATED BY TABARI, IBN IQDA AND IBN HADDAD

I have related the sources I could remember. But more than three hundred of your prominent ulema have narrated the hadith of Ghadir, the verses of baligh (preaching), kamalu'd-Din (perfection of religion), and the talk in the courtyard of the mosque, on the authority of more than one hundred companions of the Holy Prophet. If I were to relate the names of all these chroniclers, it would form a complete book. This much, however, is sufficient to prove that the hadith is unanimously accepted as true.

Some of your great ulema have written books on this topic. For instance, the well known commentator and historian of the fourth century hijri, Abu Ja'far Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari (died 310 A.H.), gives complete details of the hadith of Ghadir in his book Kitabu'l-Wilaya and has narrated it through seventy five chains of transmission.

Hafiz Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad Bin Sa'id Abdu'r-Rahman Al-Kufi, popularly known as Ibn Iqda (died 333 A.H.), narrated this holy hadith in his book Kitabu'l-Wilaya through 125 chains on the authority of 125 companions of the Holy Prophet.

Ibn Haddad Hafiz Abu'l-Qasim Haskani (died 492 A.H.), in his Kitabu'l-Wilaya, has narrated in detail the event of Ghadir along with the revelation of the verses of the Qur'an. In short, all your accredited scholars and high-ranking ulema (except a small number of fanatical opponents), quote the origin of this hadith from the Holy Prophet, who declared Ali his vicegerent on the 18th of Dhu'l-Hijja in the year of his last pilgrimage. It is also a fact that the Caliph Umar was the first among the companions to express his pleasure on this occasion. Seizing Ali by the hand, he said: "Congratulations to you, Ali! This morning has brought you a great blessing. You have become my maula (master) and the maula (master) of all believing men and believing women."

 

GABRIEL'S ADVICE TO UMAR

The Shafi'i jurist, Mir Seyyed Ali Hamadani of the eighth-century hijri, one of the reliable scholars of your sect, writes in his book Mawaddatu'l-Qurba, Mawadda V, that a large number of the companions have quoted Caliph Umar in different places as having said: "The Prophet of Allah had made Ali the master, the chief and the leader of the nation. He announced in a public gathering that he (Ali) was our maula (master). After praying for his friends and cursing his enemies, he said O Allah! You are my witness. (That is, 'I have completed my duty of prophethood.') On this occasion a handsome and sweet smelling youth was sitting beside me. He said to me, 'Verily, the Prophet of Allah has bound with a covenant which none but a hypocrite would break. So Umar! Eschew breaking it.' I told the Prophet of Allah that when he was speaking to the crowd, a handsome, sweet smelling youth was sitting beside me and that he told me such a thing. The Holy Prophet said, ' He was not of the progeny of Adam, but was Gabriel, (who had appeared in that form). He wanted to stress the point which I had announced about Ali.'"

Now I should like to seek justice from you, was it proper for them to break the firm covenant with the Prophet of Allah within two months, to go back on their pledge of sacramental allegiance to Ali, to set fire to his house, to draw swords against him, to insult him, to drag him to the mosque to force his allegiance?

Hafiz: I did not expect that a respectable and cultured Seyyed like you would attribute worldliness to the companions of the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet declared them the source of guidance for the Community when he said: "My companions are like stars; if you follow any one of them, you will be guided."

 

HADITH OF "FOLLOWING COMPANIONS" IS UNAUTHENTIC

Well-Wisher: First I should like you not to repeat the same thing time and again. You have just argued from the same hadith and I have given you its reply. The companions, like all others, were fallible. So when it is proved that they were not infallible, why should one wonder if, with proper evidence, worldliness is attributed to them? Second, in order to clear your mind, I will again give you a reply, so that you may not rely on such hadith in the future. According to the research of your own eminent ulema, this hadith is not reliable, as I have stated earlier. Qazi Ayaz Maliki quotes from your own prominent ulema that since the narrators of this hadith include the names of the ignorant and uninformed Harith Bin Qazwin and Hamza Bin Abi Hamza Nasibi, who have been found to be liars, this hadith is not worth reporting.

Also, Qazi Ayaz, in his Sharh-e-Shifa and Baihaqi in his Kitab, have declared that this hadith is forged and have regarded its source as unreliable.

 

SOME OF COMPANIONS WERE SLAVES TO THEIR WISHES AND TURNED AGAINST TRUTH

Third, I never said anything rude, I say only what your own ulema have written. I advise you to read Fazil Taftazani's Sharh-e-Maqasid, in which he states clearly that there are many instances of hostility among the Companions, which shows that some of them had become sinners and tyrants. So we see that people are not to be honored merely because they were companions of the Prophet. Real honor lies in their deeds and character. If they did not belong to the hypocrites but were obedient and faithful to the Holy Prophet they are certainly to be revered and respected. We would apply the dust of their feet to our eyes.

So, you men of justice, do you claim that the many hadith in your own reliable books concerning fighting against Amiru'l-Mu'minin Ali (such as the Holy Prophet saying: "fighting against Ali is fighting against me," are all baseless? Or do you admit that these hadith are perfectly authentic?

Are they not recorded with reliable sources in the books of your own distinguished ulema. We need not mention that these hadith are recorded by Shia ulema with perfect unanimity of opinion in all their books. If you accept these hadith, you must acknowledge that many of the companions were transgressors and sinners, as was Mu'awiya. Umar Ibn As, Abu Huraira, Samra Bin Jundab, Talha, Zubair all of whom rose to fight against Ali in fact rose against the Holy Prophet himself.

And since they fought against the Prophet, they certainly deviated from the right path. So, if we said that some of the companions were slaves to their desires, we were not wrong, because what we said was true. Besides this, we are not alone in holding that some of the companions were sinners, tyrants, and transgressors. We base our stand on the authority of your own great ulema.

 

IMAM GHAZALI'S VIEW ABOUT COMPANIONS BREAKING THE PLEDGE TAKEN ON THE DAY OF GHADIR-E-KHUM

If you study Sirru'l-Alamin, compiled by Abu Hamid Muhammad Bin Muhammad Ghazali Tusi, you would never object to what I say. I am, however, compelled to quote a portion of his fourth treatise in support of my statement. He says: "Proof and reasoning became brighter, and there is unanimous accord among Muslims concerning the text of the address on the day of 'Ghadir-e-Khum' that the Holy prophet said: 'Of whomsoever I am maula (master), Ali is his maula (master).' Then Umar immediately said, 'Congratulations to you, congratulations to you, O Abu'l-Hasan! You are my master and also the master of all faithful men and women.'"

This sort of congratulation clearly indicates the acknowledgment of the Holy Prophet's order, and acceptance of the leadership and caliphate of Ali. But later on they were overpowered by their worldly desires. Love for power and authority deprived them of compassion. They took it upon themselves to appoint a caliph at Saqifa-e-Bani Sa'dat. They wanted to raise the flag of their own ascendancy and to conquer territory so that their names might be preserved in history. They were intoxicated with lust for power. They ignored the injunctions of the Holy Qur'an, and the orders of the Holy Prophet. They sold their religion for this world. What a bad bargain they made with Allah! When the Holy Prophet was on his death bed he asked for pen and ink so that he could clarify the issue of succession. (May God forgive my saying it), But Umar said: "Leave this man. He is talking nonsense." So when the Holy Qur'an and the hadith

could not help them, they relied upon Ijma (consensus). But this is also void because Abbas, his descendants, Ali, his wife and their descendants did not associate themselves with those who offered allegiance to Abu Bakr.

Similarly, the Saqifa men also refused allegiance to the Khazraji, and the

Ansars rejected them also.

Respected people! please remember, the Shias do not claim anything except what your own fair ulema claim. But since you hate us, you find fault with what we say, however reasonable it might be. But you never criticize your own ulema as to why they have written such things although they have in fact revealed the truth and have stamped these realities on the pages of history.

Sheikh: Sirru'l-Alamin was not written by Imam Ghazali. His position was too lofty for him to write such a book, and notable ulema do not believe that this book was written by him.

 

SIRRU'L-ALAMIN IS IMAM GHAZALI'S BOOK

Well-Wisher: Many of your own ulema have admitted that this book was written by Imam Ghazali. Yusuf Sibt Ibn Jauzi was careful in his references to other scholars (and was also a fanatic in his religion).

In his Tadhkira Khawasu'l-Umma, p. 36, he argues from the same statement of Imam Ghazali in his Sirru'l-Alamin and quotes the same passage which I have quoted. Since no comments have been made regarding it, it shows first that he acknowledges this book to be written by Imam Ghazali. Second, he also agrees with his views, which I have briefly cited, although he himself cited them in detail. If he had not agreed with them he would have commented on them. But of course your fanatical ulema when they come across such statements of prominent scholars and find themselves unable to reject them logically, either say that the book was not written by that author, or that it was an invention of the Shias. Or they sometimes even go so far as to say that these just men were all sinners and infidels.

 

REFERENCE TO IBN IQDA'S STATUS

There is evidence that many of your distinguished ulema were persecuted simply because they spoke the truth. Fanatical ulema and uninformed people of your sect considered it unlawful to read nonconformist books. The authors of such works were even put to death as was Hafiz Ibn Iqda Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad bin Muhammad Bin Sa'id Hamadani who died 303 A.H. He was one of your prominent ulema. Many notable scholars of your own sect, like Dhahabi and Yafi'i, have acknowledged him and said that he had learned 300,000 hadith with their sources and that he was a man of great piety.

At public gatherings in Kufa and Baghdad in the third century A.H., he openly narrated the failings of the Sheikhs (Abu Bakr and Umar.) People therefore called him Rafizi and refrained from quoting hadith from him. Ibn Kathir Dhahabi and Yafi'i write about him: "Sheikh Ibn Iqda sat in the Basra Mosque (a famous Mosque between Baghdad and Kazimain) and narrated the defects and shortcomings of the Sheikhs (Abu Bakr and Umar) to the people. For this reason the hadith reported by him have been rejected. Otherwise there is no doubt about his being a true and pious man." Al-Khatib Baghdadi also has praised him in his Ta'rikh but in the end he says: "Since he described the defects and failings of the Sheikhs, he was a Rafizi."

So you people should not be under the impression that it is only the Shias who expose the truth of these issues. Your own great ulema like Imam Ghazali and Ibn Iqda used to point out the flaws in the chief companions.

 

REFERENCE TO TABARI'S DEATH

In every era of history there have been many instances of ulema who have been tortured or persecuted on account of their speaking or writing the truth. For instance the well known commentator and historian Muhammad Ibn Jarir Tabari, who was the pride of your ulema, died in 310 A.H. in Baghdad. But because the authorities feared a civil disturbance, they refused to allow his coffin to be taken out during the day. Perforce he was laid to rest in his own house during the night.

 

NISA'I'S MURDER

Another instance of persecution was Imam Abdu'r-Rahman Ahmad Ibn Ali Nisa'i's murder. He was a dignified man and is regarded as one of the Imams of Sahih Sitta (Six Authentic Books). He belonged to the high-ranking ulema of your sect in the 3rd century A.H. When he reached Damascus in 303 A.H., he saw that, because of the Bani Umayya, the residents of that place openly abused the name of Amiru'l-Mu'minin Ali Bin Abi Talib after every ritual prayer, particularly in the address of congregational prayers. He was much grieved to see this and he decided to collect all the hadith of the Holy Prophet in praise of Amiru'l-Mu'minin with the chain of their sources, all of which he remembered. Accordingly, he wrote a book, Khasa'isu'l-Alawi, in support of the exalted position and virtues of Ali. He used to read to the people from the pulpit the hadith from his book the praises of the Holy Imam.

One day when he was narrating the high merits of Ali, a rowdy group of fanatics dragged him from the pulpit and beat him. They punched his testicles and, catching hold of his penis, dragged him out of the mosque and threw him into the street. As a result of these injuries he died after a few days. His body was taken to Mecca where he was laid to rest. These events are the consequence of enmity and ignorance.

Now I beg your pardon that I have been driven a little far from my point. What I meant was that the position of Wilaya (Vicegerency) of Amiru'l-Mu'minin was not recorded by the Shia ulema alone. Your own prominent ulema have also narrated that the Holy Prophet in the presence of 70,000 or 120,000 people, raised Ali's hands and introduced him as Imam (leader and guide) of the people.

Source: al-islam.org


Other Links:

Peshawar Nights: Characteristics of the Companions   

Peshawar Nights: Hadith that both Hasan and Hussein are foremost of youth of paradise 

Peshawar Nights: Holy Prophet preferred Ali to all other men  

Peshawar Nights: Argument from the Verse of Cave and its reply   

Peshawar Nights: 300 Hundred verses in praise of Ali  

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