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Lymphoma

lymph tissue in the head and neck

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects our lymphatic system. There are main groups of lymphoma: Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. These two groups encompass about 30 different types of lymphoma.

Lymphoma develops in the lymphatic system, part of the immune system that helps filter out bacteria and fight disease.

Most of us are familiar with the term lymph nodes, and they can become swollen in normal situations at any time in our lives — usually when we are sick or have an infection. When the cells in the lymph nodes begin to multiply rapidly, become malignant, and the developing condition is lymphoma.

Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

There are two main groups of lymphoma: Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a term that encompasses a variety of cancers affecting the immune system. There are more than twenty different types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Another type of lymphoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, affects lymph tissue in the lymphatic system but can spread to the lungs, bone marrow and blood.

Causes and Risk Factors of Lymphoma

Unfortunately, researchers cannot exactly pinpoint what causes lymphoma. They have, however, identified risk factors for the disease. In general, lymphoma can develop in anyone, whether or not you display some of the risk factors attributed to the disease. Though there are factors that have been found in people with lymphoma, having some or none of the factors does not determine that a person will or will not develop the cancer.

• Age. Lymphoma can develop in both children and adults, but the majority of people diagnosed are usually older than the age of 60. Many cases where children have developed the disease is when they have a pre-existing immune system deficiency.

• Weak immune system. Other illnesses or diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, weaken the immune system and can make the body more susceptible to lymphoma.

• Family history. Although rare, certain inherited lymphoma syndromes do exist, increasing the likelihood of developing lymphoma.

• Infections. Illnesses, such as HIV/AIDS, Epstein-Barr virus, Hepatitis C and Helicobacter pylori, are all factors that can increase the risk of developing lymphoma.

Studies are now being done to see if there is a relationship between obesity and certain herbicides and chemicals in the development of lymphoma.

• Radiation. People exposed to high levels of radiation, such as survivors of nuclear reactor accidents and atomic bombs, are at an increased risk for developing non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. People who also had previous radiation therapy are also at a higher risk for lymphoma.

Symptoms of Lymphoma

General symptoms of lymphoma include swelling of a lymph node, unintended weight loss, fatigue, night sweats, fevers and feeling itchy without an apparent cause.

Lymphoma Prevention

While there are certain recognized risk factors for developing lymphoma, the cause for both Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas has yet to be determined. Research indicates that many patients diagnosed with lymphoma do not have any increased lymphoma risk factors used to determine the cause of the disease. Since it is not yet known what causes lymphoma, there is no general way to prevent it. Avoiding the lymphoma risk factors, such as smoking, can be helpful in reducing your risk of the disease. There are some risk factors, such as family history or age, which cannot be avoided. Keep in mind that just because you have a risk factor for lymphoma, this does not a guarantee that you will develop it. It only means you have an increased chance of developing lymphoma.

Source: cancer.about.com


Other links:

Definition of Cancer

Types of Cancer

Kidney cancer (renal cell)

Melanoma (part 1)

Melanoma (part 2)

Bladder Cancer

Breast Cancer

Colon Cancer

Leukemia

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