The township of Damqan is in the center of the province, and lies in a north-south direction. To the north is Mazandaran province, to the south are the desert region and Esfahan province. In the northern sector are the central Alborz Mountain Ranges and the remaining part comprises of desert and waste land. The city of Damqan the center of the said township which is at a distance of 335 km. from Tehran. This city is famous for its pistachio, in the country. In the mountainous area it has a moderate climate, whereas in the southern desert region it is warm. The city is also subjected to dusty, northern winds.
The construction of this city is generally related to 'Hushang' ( a descendent of Kiomars), and is therefore one of the ancient cities of Iran. In the Islamic era it was the center of the 'Gomess' territory and according to some narrations, the primary construction of this city was in the vicinity of Sad Darvazeh.
This township lies in the west of the province. To its north lies Firooz Kooh and Damavand and to its western limits are Varamin and Qom. In the south lies the desert region of Esfahan province and the Salt Lake to the west. The villages of this township are fed by the minor tributaries of the Hableh River. Garmsar is situated on the plains 107 km. from Tehran and the railway line of Tehran - Gorgan and Tehran - Mashad branches off at this point. This city, having a quaint background, was one of the districts of Khar in the past and in the year 1959 become a township.
The township of Semnan is confined to the limits of the township of Garmsar from east, to the township of Damqan from west, and to the north are Mazandaran province and the township of Firooz Kooh. The center of the township of Semnan is the city of Semnan which is at a distance of 221 km. from Tehran. This city lies on the route from Tehran to Khorassan province, both on the road and railway network.
At the beginning of the 4th century AH., Semnan was the realm of the Al Ziyad dynasty after which the Al Booyeh dynasty ruled. In those periods the cities of Gomess were considered as part of the Daylam territory. In the year 427 AH., the Turks of Qaz, were liable for vast damages in this vicinity, and in the year 618 AH., the city was raised to shambles during the Mongol invasion. Later on, during the Safavid and Qajar eras, the city thrived once again. Today, it is a flourishing and beautiful city. Past historians have made repeated mention of the said in their records.
The said township is situated in the mid-eastern portion of Semnan province. To the south it is in the neighborhood of Khorassan province and Esfahan province and to the north lies Golestan province. In its northern section are the Alborz Mountain Ranges, and to the south is the Salt Desert. Its center is the city of Shahrood which is 400 km. from Tehran. The Taash river flows through this city, ending at the desert region. In the mountainous region it experiences cold weather, but in other areas it is relatively moderate.
The city of Shahrood does not have an ancient background. In the times of Fathali Shah Qajar it comprised of two ancient castles and a small meadow by the name of 'Shabdari'. But the surrounding areas named as, Biarjand, Miami and Bastam have an older history. Bastam is located 6 km. north of Shahrood, and according to narratives has been constructed during the reign of 'Khosrow Parviz' and yet another theory states it to be from the times of Shahpour Sassanide II (310 - 379 AD.). Naser Khosrow Qobadiani has mentioned Bastam as the center of the Gomess territory in the year 438 AH.
After the Mongol invasion, Bastam was demolished and the current city of Shahrood which is located on the main road and railway net work of Tehran - Mashad gradually gained importance and took the place of the former city of Bastam.