The township of Asad Abad is to the west of Hamadan and in the neighborhood of the Kermanshah province. This township lies 52 km. west of Hamadan and 480 km. from Tehran. It has a cold, mountainous type of climate with fertile plains surrounding it. The famous "Pass of Asad Abad" in the vicinity of Asad Abad is snow-bound dung winter. Asad Abad is also the birth place of the reputed leader of the anti-exploitation movement in contemporary Iran, by the name of "Seyed Jamal Asad Abadi".
It is located to the north east of Hamadan, and in the fertile plains of Bahar. This area is famous for its potato cultivation, which is distributed to other parts of the country. Bahar is situated 30 km. from Hamadan and has a cold mountainous climate, with snowy winters and short mild summers. The city of "Lalehjin" in this township is famous for its ceramics in Iran.
Hamadan township being in the vicinity of the Alvand mountains has a cold, mountainous climate, with snowy winters and short mild summers. The city of Hamadan is the center of the province and is at a distance of 337 km. from Tehran. The structures of city is related to "Diya Aku" one of the monarchs of the Medes, about (700 BC.). According to the records of a reputed Greek historian, this territory was called "Ekbatan" and "Hegmataneh" by this monarch . Thus being transformed into a huge capital, which was later repaired by Darius The Great.
During the Parthian era, "Teesfoon was the capital of the country, and Hamadan the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamadan. In the year 23 AH. when the war of Nahavand took place and Hamadan came into the hands of the Arabs, at times it thrived and at times witnessed poverty. In the times of the Deylamites (319 AH.) , it suffered plenty of damages. In the 6th century AH., the Seleucidians shifted their capital from Baqdad to Hamadan.
The city of Hamadan which was always assaulted by the rise and fall of powers, was completely destroyed during the Teimooride invasion. During the Safavid era the city thrived. Thereafter, in the year 1138 AH., Hamadan surrendered to the Ottomans, but due to the courage and chivalry of Nader Shah Afshar, Hamadan was cleared off the invaders and according to the peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans , it was returned to Iran. The city of Hamadan lay on the "Silk Road" and even in the last centuries enjoyed good prospects in commerce and trade being on the main road network in the western region of the country.
This township lies in the vast plains north of the province. It has a cold mountainous climate. The city of Kabudrahang is the center of this township which lies 62 km. from Hamadan. Kabudrahang was a part of Hamadan township, but today it is a separate township.
Malayer is one of the southern townships of Hamadan province, with a temperate and mountainous climate. Mostowfi narrates that Nahavand comprised of 100 villages divided into three portions named as, Malayer, Esfidhan and Jeyqooq. The city of Malayer stands 83 km. south east of Hamadan, and 418 km. from Tehran. There are many versions as to its name. It is said that during the time of the Medes, fire would be lighted on the hills to send out information to other parts of the territory from here. This area was therefore known as Mel Agar, which meant "fire hill." This is the current township of Malayer, which thrived from long past.
Fathali Shah was responsible for the construction of what is now the city of Malayer today. It was in the year 1188 AH. that this place was inaugurated by Mohammad Ali Mirza Daulat Shah, and in honor of the founder was called Daulat Abad. But later on during the Pahlavi rule was changed to Malayer.
Nahavand is one of the southern townships of Hamadan province, with a temperate mountainous climate and heavy rainfall during the spring. The city of Nahavand lies 152 km. south of Hamadan, and about 460 km. from Tehran. Studies and archeological researches conducted by Prof. Grishman in the "Geyan Hill", reveals that approximately 3,700 years BC. the inhabitants of this region had a similar civilization to that of Mesopotamia. But this civilization crumbled due to the presence of Asians and Europeans.
At the time of the invasion of Alexander to Iran, during the Achaemenian period, Nahavand was destroyed, though not much is known of this period. The Seleucidians also attacked this city and remained there for some time. In the Sassanide period however, Nahavand held a strategic position. During the Arab invasion, the Iranian soldiers were forced to surrender. Naseredin Shah (Qajar dynasty), visited Nahavand, and ordered the castle of the city, which was an important historical monument, to be completely destroyed. The township of Nahavand is one of the ancient seats of civilization in Iran.
The township of Razan is in the extreme north eastern part of the province and is the neighborhood of the Qazvin province. To the east and north of this township span the mountains of Noubaran, and the famous snow-bound Avaj Gorge is located in these mountains. This is the reason why this township has cold winters and mild, short summers. The city of Razan lies en route between Hamadan and Tehran, 83 km. from Hamadan and 250 km. from Tehran.Razan which was a part of Hamadan township, in the recent years has become itself a township.
Situated in the south eastern slopes of the Alvand Mountains, and to the south of Hamadan on elevated land, it experiences cold winters, and moderate summers. The city of Towiserkan lies at a distance of 395 km. from Tehran and 93 km. from Hamadan. The old city of "Rood Avar" formerly comprised of three villages called "Tu"ie", "Serkan", and "Shekan". After the invasion of the Mongols this city lost its importance, and the inhabitants flocked to "Tu"ie".
The current Towiserkan is the former Tu"ie. Serkan is 10 km. north west of Towiserkan. Even today it is one of the cities of the Towiserkan township. The Habaqooq-e-Nabi Mausoleum is near this city. This prophet lived here in 700 BC. Archeological excavations made around this mausoleum reveal the flouridment of this area during that time.