Historical Caves, Zanjan
Dash Kasan Caves, Abhar
This aggregate is located 10 km. south east of Soltanieh (Abhar). During this period three caves have been intricately dug out from the breast of the mountain side. Out of the remnants of this beautiful sculpture is worth mentioning of two dragons opposite each other and reaching a height of 3 m. Along side these are other engravings (in the Islamic style) such as flowers and paisley design in order to enchance the beauty of the altars situated in the cave.
Dragon Stone of Dash Kasan Caves
Besides which the stone has been carved in an arched fashion. The remnants of these carvings are from the period of the Mongol Emperor Oljaito, as he had sent for Chinese craftsmen and ordered them thus. According to the theory held regarding these caves, they were utilized during two separate periods in history. In the first the theory holds that these caves were a place of worship for the Sassanians. The second being during the Ilkhanan dynasty, depicted by the carving such as dragons, grape wine leaves, and wine etched in the caves.
Due to the fact that the green slabs of stone use in constructing the Soltanieh citadel were excavated from these caves, space was provided for carvings and the construction of tombs in the said vicinity which later on was turned into a mausoleum.
Galjik Historical Cave, Zanjan
This cave is located in the heights facing the Haj Arah village of Zanjan. At present no road way facilities are provided and the only way to get there is to trek. This large cave has come about from limestone deposits. Remnants in these caves date back thousands of years at least 16-30000 years BC.
In side the cave some apparatus, tools, stone blades and even skeleton of hunted animals have been found. The focal point of interest is the fact that the prehistoric abided by certain limits regarding dwelling within these caves and defined limits in respect to each other, which throws light on. The architectural effects seen here reveals the insolation of their biosphere and determination of their living limits and propertrties.
Katlah Khor Garmab Cave, Zanjan
This cave is located 140 km. south west of Zanjan, in the southern skirts of the Saqizloo mountains. The inlet to this cave stands 6-8 m. above a dry river. The beauty of this cave is enhanced due to the formation of stalagtites and stalagmites because of calcified precipitation. Besides these are icicles suspended from the roof and these conical shaped hangings due to impurities are multicolored, whereas some are crystals clear.
In the larger passages, a constant trickle of water has brought about the presence of beautiful designs notable shapes similar to a cauliflower (due to presence of calcified material, it resembles the same) these cauliflowers are also multi-colored. On the cave flooring a skeleton of a four legged animal, which has been converted to a calcified compound can also be noted . En route to this cave, leisure spots filled with natural beauty enhances the eye of the on looker, besides having rest-houses and places of pilgrimage.
Kharmanehsar Cave, Zanjan
The said cave is located in the heights of the Kharmanehsar Mountains in the village of Shah Neshan. A type of granite and white limestone have formed columns and hangings (Stalagtites and Stalagmites) very similar to those of a chandelier, suspended from the roof of the cave. Needless to say this natural feature has added to its beauty.
There is a interwoven, window-like opening near the peak of the Kharmanehsar Mountain, but this inlet must not be mistaken for the actual mouth of the cave, as it has nothing to do with the same. Above the opening or mouth of the cave there is a large crevice resembling a room, around which are smaller crevices. These are nesting places for bats and such creatures who do not take long to make their appearance to 'welcome' a visitor on hearing footsteps. But on entering the cave, and after a short distance an approximately large space is encountered with, after which there comes a water-hole filled with clean, sparkling water.
Within 50 m. of this cave, is a crevice similar to the mouth of well and to enter one must crawl in this crevice. There is another world encountered here, full of wonder and speculation. Hence a precipice appears that requires team work or at the least appropriate mountaineering gear. After which there is a long way to go passing through a tunnel like structure, at the end of which another larger mouth of a well appear. This also needs special apparatus for its descend. On leaving this well behind, about 100 m. ahead of which is a tomb like structure and this requires special mountaineering cables and ultimate caution to enable crossing. After a few seconds a large hall with very high roofs and a gradual incline comes into view.
The slope extends downwards and it seems that this is the end of the cave. But this is not so and retaining the end of the cave is another extensive branch. This segment resembles the ancient structure of a market- place or bazaar and in some places of which hand dug out shelves can be noticed. In the flooring of this portion there is a mouth of a well which leads to the end of this hall. In order to get to this portion of the cave at least 6 hours of effort is required. These vicinities are filled with suspended stones which are large in size. This cave has been used for human settlement in two periods- the first was in the pre-historic ages and the second in 4th century AH.