Appointment As Successor At Ghadir
On the 18th Zilhajj, the prophet (S.A.W) arrived at Ghadir-al-Khum, a barren land on the outer skirts of Johfa Valley. Here he ordered a halt, having received the following revelation.
"O' Prophet! Proclaim what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you do not, you would not accomplish the mission all; and God will defend you against men; verily God guides not the unbelieving people".
After halting, a make-shift pulpit was made and Bilal, the Muazin, called the people. Those who had gone ahead were summoned back and those who followed gathered round casting inquiring glances at each other. Thus HAI ALAA KHAIRUL AMAL has added to Adhan.
After the people gathered round the pulpit, the Prophet (S.A.W) ascended it and addressed the multitude. He (S.A.W) first praised Allah and then brought the People to witness that he had done his duty towards them. He (S.A.W) then advised the people to hold fast toAhl-ul-Bayt
after him. After this, the Prophet (S.A.W) bent down and lifted Ali (A.S) who was on his right and showing him to the crowds on all sides of the pulpit, the Prophet (S.A.W) proclaimed:
"Of whomsoever I am the Master ( Maula ), this Ali is his Master ( Maula)"
So saying the Prophet (S.A.W) raised up his hands heavenwards and prayed, "O" our God, love those who will love Ali, despise those who will despise him; support who those who will support him and reject those who will reject him."
Announcing this thrice, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) got down from the raised platform and seated Ali (A.S) in a tent, where the people paid him homage.
The Prophet has said of Hazrat Ali
"O Ali, you are my brother in this world as well as the Hereafter".
"I am the city of knowledge and Ali is the gate".
Nobody knows Ali except I and Ali.Nobody knows Ali except Allah and I.
Nobody knows me except Allah and Ali".
"If you want see the knowledge of Adam, the piety of Noah, the devotion of Abraham, the awe of Moses, and the service and abstinence of Christ, look at the bright face of Ali"
When the Holy Prophet reached Yathrib (Medina) and met his followers who had come from Makka at his call, the immediately appointed for each such follower a person from the people of Yathrib who had accepted his prophethood to be a brother to him. His appointment of brothers was a great act of help for the refugees (know as Ansar), who had left their home and come to Yathrib. He made brothers of people who followed the same trade so that the Ansar could be usefully employed immediately. While the Prophet was appointing an Ansar a brother to Muhajirin (converts of Yathrib), Hazrat Ali (A.S) who was present there, was not appointed as a brother to any Muhajirin On being questioned as to why he had not appointed a brother.
For Hazrat Ali (A.S), the Prophet said: "He shall be a brother of me".
The character of Ali (A.S) as judged by Allama Massodee is:, "lf the glorious name of being the first Muslim, a comrade of the Prophet in exile, his faithful companion in the struggle for faith, his intimate associate in life, and his kinsman; if a true knowledge of the spirit of his teachings and of the Book; If self-abnegation and practice of justice; if honesty; purity; and love of truth; if a knowledge of law and science; constitute a claim to pre-eminence then all must regard Ali as the foremost Moslem. We shall search in vain to find, either among his predecessors (save one) or among his successors, those attributes".
Gibbon says "The birth, the alliance, the character of Ali which exalted him above the rest of his countrymen, might justify his claim to the vacant throne of Arabia. The son of Abu Taleb was in his own right the chief of Bani Hashim and the hereditary price or guardian of the city and temple of Makka.
Hazrat Ali (A.S) has the qualifications of a poet, a soldier, and a saint, his wisdom still breathes in a collection of moral and religious sayings; and every antagonist, in the combats of the tongue or of sword, was subdued by his eloquence and valour. From the first hour of his mission to the last rites of his funeral, the Apostle was never forsaken by a generous friend, who he delighted to name his brother, his vicegerent, and the faithful Aaron of a second Moses".