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  • 9/10/2006

Dictionary of Islamic Philosophical Terms


al-Hiss al-mushtarik:

The common sense (sensus communis) located in the first ventricle of the front brain; it combines all the forms of the sensible objects that are received through the five external senses (al-hawas al-khamsah). It may be said that it is a faculty in which all the sense-perceptions are so coalesced that they assume a single form. This is how when we see the yellow colour of honey, we can internally tell that it is sweet, good-smelling and fluid; true, we have our past experiences of the taste, smell and touch of honey without sensing them again has become possible only through the functioning of the faculty of common sense.Hissah:Case (see Asfar, 1: 43)


A proposition, i.e. a logical judgment expressed in a sentence. It is an assertion or statement of the relation of agreement or disagreement between two terms one of which is called the predicate (mahmul) and the other the subject (maudu) of that predicate synonymous with qadiyah.al-Hukm al-salib: A logical judgment in which the predicate is mentally denied of the subject.

al-Hukm al-mujib:

A logical judgment in which the predicate is mentally affirmed of the subject.al-Hikmat al-ishraqiyah: "Illuminationist theosophy": a school of thought in Muslim religio-philosophical thought which identifies philosophy with wisdom and gnosis rather than with abstract speculation and rational systematisation. Accordingly, unlike the Peripatetic philosophers of whom it is mostly critical, it lays greater emphasis on intuition (attained through invocation, meditation and purification of the soul) than on discursive intellect to reach the light of wisdom which, it maintains, was first revealed to the prophets and only partly understood and even misinterpreted by the Greek philosophers. As enunciated in the Hikmat al-Ishraq (528/1186) by Shihab al-Din al-Suharwardi (549-587/1153-1191), the founder of the school, it integrates Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy with the Zoroastrian principles of light and darkness along with its peculiar angelogy and Hermetic ideas and places the whole system within the context of Sufism. the outstanding among those who kept up the tradition of Ishraqi school were Mir Damad (d. 1041/1631), Mulla Sadra (d. 1050/1640) and Haji Hadi Sabziwari (d. 1295/1878). See also al-hikmat al-dhauqiyah.

al-Hikmat al-bahthiyah:

Philosophy based on discursive intellect and its abstract speculations, a name given by the philosophers of Illuminationism to the philosophy of Aristotle and his representatives in Muslim philosophy (masha’iyun).al-Hikmat al-dhauqiyah: Philosophy based on Illuminative disclosures of inner experiences and mystical intuitions as opposed to al-hikmat al-bahthiyah, the philosophy based on discursive intellect and theoretical speculations. A distinction made by the philosophers of Illuminationism. While the former opens up new frontiers of experience and suggestion and inner illumination, the latter merely enters into subtle dialectical discussions through definitions, explanations and abstract speculations.

al-Hikmat al-riyadiyah:

The science of mathematics which consists of four disciplines: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and theory of music.al-Hikmat al-majhuulah:"The unknown wisdom", i.e. those acts of God the wisdom of which remain unknown to human beings, for example the infliction of pain upon the innocent and virtuous. The term is used equally with reference to such religious beliefs as are beyond our finite understanding.

al-Hikmat al-muwwahamah:

The Arabic title given by al-Farabi to Aristotle’s sixth book on logic, viz.Sophistici Elenchi.Hay"ah:State [see al-Farabi, Fusul al-Madani, Fasl 1, 103, Dunlop trans. 27. composition [see my translation of Asfar 1: 21, line 1]


Temporal origination, temporal emergence, becoming.Hulul:Fusion, permeation or indwelling; a term used in philosophy in different senses: (1) the substantial union of the body and soul; (2) indwelling of the divine spirit in man; (3) inherence of an accident in its substance; (4) the union of form (surah) with prime matter (hayula); (5) the relation between a body and its place.

al-Hulul al-jawari:

The relation of something being contained in a container like water in a water-pot, a term used synonymous with (al-hulul al-tarayani).al-Hulul al-sarayani:The fusion of a thing into another so that it penetrates into every part of the latter like the fragrance of a rose into the rose flower.

al-hulul al-tarayani

The relation of something being contained in a container like water in a water-pot; also sometimes called al-hulul al-jawari opposed to al-hulul al-sarayani.

Haml al-ishtiqaq:

Incomplete or partial prediction of a subject in a subject-predicate proposition, e.g. when we say that man is a biped.Haml al-muwatah:Complete prediction of a subject in the subject-predicate proposition so that the two become congruent and convertible with each other, e.g. when we say that man is a rational animal; opposed to haml al-ishtiqaq.

al-Hawas al-batinah:

The internal senses; these include common sense(al-hiss al-mushtarik), formative faculty (al-quwwat al-mutasawwirah), memory (al-quwwat al-mutadhakkirah), imagination (al-quwwat al-mutakhayyilah) and estimative faculty (al-quwwat al-mutawahhimah); see also al-quwwat al-mudrikah.al-Hawas al-khamsah: The five external sense: touch (lams), taste (dhauq), smell (shamm), sight (basr) and hearing (sam‘), which this order according to the philosophers, from a series in a graded order in which the distinctive nature of the sensation receiving the form without the mother of its object is increasingly manifested.

al-Hawas al-zahirah:

The external senses; include touch (lams), taste (dhauq), smell (shamm), sight (basr) and hearing (sam‘); these are five senses (al-hawas al-khamsah) if touch is considered a single sense, but eight (al-hawas al-thamaniyah) if it is supposed to comprise the four pairs of contraries: hot (hararah) and cold (burudah); dry (yubusah) and moist (rutubah); hard (salabah) and soft (rakhamah); and smooth (mulasah) and rough (khushunah).Hayy Ibn Yaqzan: "The living One, Son of the Vigilant", the title of the celebrated philosophical romance -one of the most remarkable works of the Middle Ages -by the Andulsian Muslim philosopher Ibn Tufail (504?-581/ 1110?-1185). No book on Muslim philosophy perhaps has been translated into so many languages of the world as this.
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