Dictionary of Islamic Philosophical Terms
A term used by al-Kharazmi to denote common sense. See also al-hiss al-mushtarik.Hᾱl:
An intermediate "mode of existence", between being and non-being. In tasawwuf the term denotes an instantaneous trans-temporal mystical state by which a Sufi is seized in the act of encounter with a "favour" or grace from God.
"The convincing proof of Islam”, the honorific title given to the greatest theologian of Islam, Imam al-Ghazali (450-505/1058-1111), one of the greatest and most original thinkers, not only in the history of Muslim philosophy but in the history of human thought. This title befits him most because of his defense of the teachings of Islam through a remarkable criticism of the Muslim Peripatetic philosophers in his celebrated work: Tahafut al-Falasifah (The Incoherence of the Philosophers).Hadd:
A term, i.e. word or combination of words, which by itself can be used as a subject (maudu‘) or a predicate (mahmul) of a logical proposition (qadiyah); also the definition of a term. See also the various kind of hadd.
The minor term, i.e. the term which is used as a subject in the conclusion of a syllogism (qiyas).al-Hadd al-akbar:
The major term, i.e. the term which is used as predicate in the conclusion of a syllogism (qiyas).
The middle term; the term which is common to the two premises in a syllogism and functions as a uniting link between them; it is, however, absent from the conclusion.
The complete definition of a thing consisting of its proximate genus and differentia, e.g. the definition of man as a rational animal; also called al-hadd al-kamil.Hads:
The capacity of the mind to draw immediate inferences from the data presented to it or to see through a kind of mental illumination the necessary connection between premises and conclusion.
al-Hadd ghair al-muwati:
The syncategorematic word, i.e. one which by itself cannot be used as a term (hadd), i.e. as a subject (maudu‘) or a predicate (mahmul) of a logical proposition (qadiyah), by itself without the support of other words, such, for example, as definite or indefinite article, preposition, etc.al-Hadd al-kamil:
The perfect definition of a thing consisting of its proximate genus and differentia, e.g. the definition of man as a rational animal.
The categorematic word which can be used as a term (hadd), i.e. as a subject (maudu‘) or a predicate (mahmul) of a logical proposition (qadiyah), by itself without the support of other words; such is usually a noun, pronoun, an adjective, etc.al-Hadd al-naqis:
The imperfect definition of a thing referring merely to its differentia or to the differentia and the remote genus, e.g. definition of man as one who is rational or a "body" which is rational.
"The three terms", i.e. the three terms of syllogism (qiyas), viz. the major term (al-hadd al-akbar), the minor term (al-hadd al-asghar) and the middle term (al-hadd al-ausat).Hadith:
Continuous. See Fazlur Rahman, Sadra, 103, line 27.al-Harakat al-iradiyah:
Voluntary movement as opposed to constrained or forced movement (al-harakat al-qasriyah; al-harakat al-iradiyah is also distinguished from al-harakat al-tabi‘iyah for, whereas the former is multidirectional, the latter is unidirectional.
The movement of a body not through an intermediary but by itself -opposed to al-harakat al-‘ardiyah.al-Harakat al-tabi‘iyah:
Natural movement, for example, a stone falling on the ground; it is necessarily a linear or unidirectional movement as compared to al-harakat al-iradiyah which may be multilinear or multidirectional.
Lit. "accidental movement"; technically movement of a body through an intermediary, e.g. the movement of a ring on the finger along the movement of the finger or the movement of a person sitting in a boat along the movement of the boat -opposed to al-harakat al-dhatiyah.Harakat fi’l-ain:
Movement of a body from one place to another; it is also called naqlah.
Quantitative change in a body; it is of four kinds: when the quantitative change in a body is due to nourishment or lack of it is called namuw (growth) or dhubul (decay or dimunition); and when a change is independent of the factor of nourishment or lack of it, it is either takhalkhul, i.e. expansion, e.g. of water into steam takathuf, i.e. compression or condensation, e.g. of steam vapours into water.Harakat fi’l-kaif:
Qualitative change in a body from one state or condition into another, e.g. water becoming hot after it was cold; also called istihalah.
Movement on account of the change in the position of a body, e.g. a man who is sitting suddenly lies down; sometimes identified with al-harakat al-mustadirah, e.g. the movement of a millstone in a mill which is a movement within the surrounding surface or space of a body of the millstone and not from one place to another.al-Harakat al-qasriyah:
Forced or constrained movement, for example, of a stone thrown upwards; opposed to al-harakat al-iradiyah.al-Harakat al-mustadirah:
Lit. "the circular movement"; technically the movement of body within the surrounding surface or space of that body as distinguished from harakat fi’l-ain (q.v.) which is a movement from place (makan) to another; this movement is peculiar to the celestial spheres in the Ptolemaic astronomy.
Linear or unidirectional movement peculiar to bodies in the world of elements; contrasted with al-harakat al-mustadirah (q.v.) peculiar to the heavenly bodies in the world of celestial spheres.