Imam javad (PBUH)
Son of the prophet Mohammad
Imam Muhammad Taqi (PBUH) the 9th infallible successor to the Prophet Muhammad was born in Medina.
His Mother, '' Sabika '' (Reyhane) was one of the most pious of women. Imam Muhammad al-jawad was brought up by his Holy father Imam Reza for four years. Under the force of circumstances Imam Reza had to migrate formMedina to khurasan (Iran), leaving his young son behind him. The Imam was fully aware of the treacherous character of the ruling king and was sure that he would return to Medina no more. So before his departure fromMedina he declared his son Muhammad al-Javad as his successor, and imparted to him all his stores of divine knowledge and spiritual genius. After the martyrdom of his father, Imam Reza (PBUH), in Khorasan, the mantle of divine leadership fell on the young shoulders of Imam Muhammad Taqi (PBUH).
He was very popular, and because of his generosity he was known as Javad or the Generous.
During his period of Imamate, Islam had spread over a vast area, bringing people of different ideologies and different creeds in its fold. This led to debates and dialogues between Islamic and non-Islamic thinkers, and Imam Javad (PBUH) played a leading and effective role in this regard. At every opportunity, he enlightened people with divine teachings of Islam.Imamate:
Imam Reza was poisoned on 17th safari 203 AH and with effect from the same date Imam Muhammad al-Javad was commissioned by Allah to hold the responsibility of Imamate. At the tender age of eight there was no apparent chance or means of the young Imam reaching great heights of knowledge and practical achievements. But later, for days he is known not only to have debated with his contemporary scholars on subjects pertaining to Fiqh ( Islamic jurisprudence), Hadith (tradition), Tafsir (Quranic exegesis), etc. and outwitted them, but also to exhort their admiration and acknowledgment of his learning and superiority. Right from then the world realized that he possessed divine knowledge and that the knowledge commanded by the Holy Imam was not acquired, but granted by Allah.Literary Attainments and excellence:
The span of the life of Imam Muhammad al-Javad was shorter than that of his predecessors as well as his successors. He became Imam at the age of eight. And was poisoned at the age of twenty - five; yet his literary attainments were many and his commanded great respect and esteem. The Holy Imam al-Javad was the symbol of Prophet Muhammad's affability and Imam Ali's attainments. His hereditary qualities comprised of gallantry, boldness, charity, learning, forgiveness and tolerance, The brightest and most outstanding phases of his nature and character were to show hospitality and courtesy to all without discrimination, to help the needy; to observe equality under all circumstances, to live a simple life; to help the orphans, the poor and the homeless; to impart learning to those interested in the acquisition of knowledge and guide the people to the right path.Migration to Iraq:
For the consolidation of his empire, it was realized by al-Ma'mun, the Abbasid king, that it was necessary to win the sympathy and support of the Iranians who had always been friendly to the Ahlul-Bayt. consequently, al-Ma'mun was forced , from a political point of view , to establish contacts with the tribe of Banu Fatimah at the expense of the ties with Banu Abbas and thereby win the favour of the shiite. Accordingly, he declared Imam Reza as his heir even against the Imam's will and got his sister umm Habibah married to him. al-Ma'mun expected that Imam Reza would lend his support in political affairs of the state. But when he discovered that the Imam was little interested in political matter and that the masses were more and more submitting them to him due to his spiritual greatness, he got him poisoned.
Yet the exigency which directed him to nominate Imam Reza as his heir and successor still continued. Hence he desired to marry his daughter ummau` l-fadl to Muhammad al-Javad, the son of Imam Reza and with this object in view, he summoned the Imam from Medina to Iraq.Meeting between young Imam and the most learned of men:
The Banu Abbas were extremely disconcerted when they come to know that al-Ma'mun was planning to marry his daughter to Imam Muhammad al-Javad. A delegation of some leading persons waited on him in order to dissuade him from his intention. But al-Ma`mun continued to admire the learning and excellence of the Imam. He would say that though Imam Muhammad al-Javad was still young, yet he was a true successor to his father in all his virtues and that the profoundest scholars of the Islamic world could not compete with him" when the `Abbasides noticed that al-Ma'mun attributed the Imam's superiority to his learning they chose Yahya ibn Aktham, the greatest scholar and jurist of Baghdad, to contend with him.
Al-Ma'mun issued a proclamation and organized a grand meeting for the contest which resulted in huge gathering of people from all parts of the kingdom. apart from noble and high officials, there were as many as nine hundred chairs reserved for scholars and learned men only. The world wondered how a young child could contest with the veteran judge in religious laws (qadi'l-qudat) and the greatest scholar ofIraq. Imam Muhammad al-Javad was seated beside al-Ma'mun on his throne face to face with Yahya ibn Aktham , who addressed the Imam thus:
"Do you permit me to ask you a Question?"
"Ask me whatever you wish," said the Imam in the typical tone of his ancestors.
Yahya then asked the Imam, O what is your verdict about a man who indulges in hunting while he is in the state of Ehram." (In the code of religious law hunting is supposed to be forbidden for a pilgrim.)
The Imam at once replied, "Your question is vague and misleading.
You should have definitely mentioned whether he hunted within the jurisdiction of the Ka`bah or outside; whether he was literate of illiterate;
whether he was a slave of a free citizen;
whether he was a minor or a major;
whether it was for the first time of he had done it previously;
also whether, that victim was a bird or some other creature;
whether the prey was small or big;
whether he hunted in the day or at night;
whether the hunter repented for his action of persisted in it ;
whether he hunted secretly of openly ;
Whether the Ehram was for `umrah of for hajj. Unless all these points are explained no specific answer can be given to this question." al-Qadi Yahya was staggered in listening to these words of the Imam and the entire gathering was dumbfounded.
There was no limit to al-Ma'mun's pleasure. He expressed his sentiments of joy and admiration thus, "Bravo! Well done! O Abu Ja`far! (Ahsanta, ahsanta ya Aba Ja`far ) , your learning and attainments are beyond all praises." As al-Ma'mun wanted that the Imam's opponent be fully exposed, he said to the Imam, "You may also put some question to Yahya ibn Aktham." Then Yahya also reluctantly said to the Imam, "Yes, you may ask me some questions. If I know the answer, I will tell you; otherwise , I shall request you to give its answer." Thereupon, the Imam asked a Question to which Yahya could not reply. Eventually, the Imam answered his question.
Then al-Ma'mun addressed the audience thus: Did I not say that the Imam comes of a family which has been chosen by Allah as the repository of knowledge and learning? Is there any one in the world who can match even the children of this family? "All of them shouted," Undoubtedly there in no one parallel to Muhammad ibn ` Ali al-Jawad." In the some assemble al-Ma'mun wedded his daughter ummu 'l-Fadl to the Imam and liberally distributed charity and gifts among his subjects as a mark of rejoicing. One year after his marriage the Imam returned to Medina from Baghdad with his wife and there he set about preaching the commandments of Allah.Martyrdom:
when after the death of al-Ma'mun, al-mu`tasim ascended the throne, he got and opportunity to persecute the Imam and to ventilate spite and malice against him. He summoned the Imam to Baghdad. The Imam arrived atBaghdad on 9th Muharram 220 AH and al-Mu`tasim got him poisoned in the same year. He was martyred on 29 th Dhi'lqi`dah 220 AH and was buried beside his grandfather, Imam Mussa al-Kazim the Seventh Imam, in al-Kazimiyyah , in the suburb of Baghdad (Iraq).
Selected from al-shia.com