Dictionary of Islamic Philosophical Terms
The fallacy of divisionTaqabul:
The relation of opposition between two concepts or states which cannot be asserted of a thing or an individual at the same time and in the same respect. This is of four kinds: (1) contradiction ( taqabul fi’l-salb wa’l-ijab
) (2) contrariety ( taqabul al-diddain
) (3) correlation ( taqabul al-tadayuf
) and (4) the relation between privation and possession ( taqabul bain al-‘adm wa’l-milkah
) -all considered by Aristotle to be different forms on contrariety.
Taqabul bain al-'adm wa'l-milkah:
The relation of opposition between privation and possession like that between rest and motion. It is different from the opposition of between two contraries ( taqabul al-diddain
): in the case of two contraries the existence of both is necessarily presupposed but no such presupposition is necessary in the case of that which is privative -rest is merely the non-existence of motion. Moreover the two contraries like hot and cold have two separate causes: they are not the co-effects of the same cause, whereas that which is privative and that which is not so, like rest and motion, are due to the working and not-working of the same cause.Taqabul al-taḍayuf:
The relation opposition between two correlatives, like that between the father and the son or that between the teacher and the pupil; though the one term necessarily implies the other, the two cannot obtain in the same individual at the same time in the same respect.
The relation of opposition between two contraries such between white and black or between hotness and coldness Taqabul fi’l-salb wa’l-ijab:
The relation of opposition between affirmation, and negation i.e. between two contradictories such as between A and not-A or between existence and non-existence.
Antecedence or priority as opposed to consequence or posteriority (ta’akhkhur). It is of various kinds: antecedence in time ( taqaddum bi’l-zaman
); antecedence in order ( taqaddum bi’l-martabah
,); antecedence in status ( taqaddum bi’l-sharf
, q.v.); antecedence by nature or constitution ( taqaddum bil’l-tab‘
); and antecedence in existence ( taqaddum bi’l-dhat
Antecedence in existence so that the non-existence of the antecedent necessarily leads to the non-existence of the consequent but no the other way around, like the antecedence of the cause to effect or of condition to the conditioned or of primary act to the secondary or generated act ( muwalladah
), e.g. the movement of a finger is antecedent to the movement of the ring on the finger: the latter is necessarily presupposed by the former but not vice versa.
Antecedence in time, i.e. the condition of being earlier in a succession of events, e.g. the antecedence of Socrates to Plato or of the Prophet Moses to the Prophet Jesus. Considered from the point of view of the series of past, present and future this antecedence in its very literal sense.Taqaddum bi’l-sharf:
Antecedence in status or excellence, e.g. of the learned to the ignorant or the believer to the non-believer; this kind of antecedence always presupposes a value-judgement, i.e. the superiority of one thing or individual to the other with reference to a norm or standard.
Antecedence as given in the very nature or constitution of things so that the exclusion (irlifa‘) of the antecedent necessarily leads to the exclusion of the consequent (mutaqaddam ‘alaih) but not vice versa, like the antecedence of number one to number two or that of lines to a geometrical figure, say a triangle; the notion of number "two" or "a triangle" presupposes respectively the notion of number "one" or that of "lines", but not the other way round.Taqaddum bi’l-martabah:
Antecedence in order; it is of three kinds: first, the antecedence of one thing to another with reference to its position in space, e.g. of Baghdad to Kufah, but this is relative to the place form where one starts one’s journey; secondly, the antecedence of one thing to another with reference to a goal or destination when we say that Median is nearer to Mecca than Baghdad; and thirdly, the antecedence of one thing to the other in the order of nature, e.g. it may be said that in the order of nature animality is antecedent to humanity not only with reference to time but also with reference to extension or denotation, but this notion of antecedence too is relative and not absolute for humanity being a more specialised form of animality is antecedent to it with reference to intension or connotation.Taqrib:
Presentation of arguments in a controversy in a logical form so that they necessarily leads to the desired conclusion.
Division by dichotomy: a logical division of a class into two contradictory sub-classes, then one of the sub-classes into tow contradictory sub-classes and so on and so forth step by step; considered in logic to be a flawless division of a "class" for at each step of the division the two contradictory sub-classes are mutually exclusive ( mani‘at al jam‘
) as well as totally exhaustive ( mani‘at al-khuluww
Compression or condensation of a body, e.g. of steam vapours into water; one of the four kinds of harakah fi’l-kamm
Creation of the natural beings which are liable to corruption (fasad) and decay; it is an act of creation which is through the intermediary of matter, time and motion and one which pre-supposes causal priority.Tamthil:
Analogy, i.e. a mode of inference in which we reason from the resemblance of two things in some respects to their resemblance in some more respects.
Contradictory or the relation of contradictory opposition between two propositions having the same subject and predicate but differing both in quality and quantity. al-Tanaquḍ fi’l-mahsurat:
Opposition by subalteration, i.e. the relation between two propositions which have the same subject and predicate and the same quality but differ in quantity, like the relation between "No men are perfect" ( al-salibat al-kulliyah
) and "some men are not perfect" ( al-salibat al-juz’iyah
The generation of secondary action or movement from a primary action or movement, for example the movement of the key in the keyhole by the movement of the hand.Tawahhum:
The apprehension of some particular object or situation at the animal level so that there is no reference to the universal or conceptual in this kind of cognitive experience.