Salāt (/Salāh: Prayer; in Persian: Namaz)
The word "salat" is derived from Syriac, or from Aramaic, where the root si' means to bow or bend, the Arabic verb salla, to perform the salat, is derived from the noun.
The salat, one of the pillars of Islam, is mentioned in the Qur'an as a duty performed by believers who give the Zakat, or alms. The times and regulations for the salat are given in detail in the hadith, and were eventually fixed at five times: Dawn,Noon, Afternoon, Sunset, and Night. According to tradition, Muhammad (pbuh) was given these instructions by Allah on the occasion of his Isra', Night Journey, to heaven.
All salat should be conducted at the appropriate times and with the appropriate numbers of rak'at (/rak'a). The salat must be performed in Arabic language even if the person neither speaks nor understands Arabic (although the du'a afterwards need not be in Arabic).However, prayers can be performed later (salat qaḍa) if missed due to unavoidable reason - for instance, accidentally falling asleep or simply forgetting. When traveling over long distances, one may shorten some prayers, a practice known as Qasr (/kasr). Qasr involves shortening the obligatory components of the Zuhr, 'Asr and 'Isha prayers.
The salat must be performed facing the qibla, the direction ofMecca, which in a mosque is indicated by the mihrab. Ritual ablution (wudu', ghusl or tayammum) precedes the salat as appropriate. First, in a standing position facing the qibla, is the pronouncement of the niyat (Niyyat), intention, to perform the salat; then the takbir followed by the Fatiha and a verse from the Qur'an. The movements then are ruku', bending till the palms are level with the knees; kneeling; a prostration, back again into a julus, between sitting and standing, another sujud, At most movements, the takbir is repeated. This set of movements, from the standing position to the end of the second sujud, constitutes one rak'at, the number is fixed for each prayer time. After the final rak'at, in a sitting position, the worshipper pronounces the tashahhud (profession of faith, shahada); the prayer upon the Prophet Muhammad; finally the taslim, greeting, Al-Salam "alaykum" (Peace be upon you), even when the person is alone.
The ritual may vary slightly according to the maḍhab, direction as to thought or teaching.
Salat is either obligatory (wajib) or supererogatory (mandub).
The set prayers are not just phrases to be spoken. Prayer for a Muslim involves uniting mind, soul, and body in worship; so a Muslim carrying out these prayers will perform a whole series of set movements that go with the words of the prayer.
Muslims make sure that they are in the right frame of mind before they pray; they put aside all everyday cares and thoughts so that they can concentrate exclusively on God.
Carrying out the prayer ritual is not only highly spiritual, but connects each Muslim to all others around the world, and to all those who have uttered the same words and made the same movements at different times in Islamic history.
How to perform SalatObligatoryPrayer
The following six prayers are obligatory:
Prayer of Ayat
Prayer of Mayyit
Prayer for the obligatory Tawaf of the holy Ka'ba
Qada Prayer of father which are, as a precaution, obligatory upon his eldest son
Prayer which become obligatory on account of hire, vow or oath
Stand erect facing the qibla (The Ka'ba), and form the following intention in your mind:
"I offer, the _________ prayer (name of a particular prayer), of ______ rak'ats (number of rak'ats),wajib Qurbatan Ilallᾱh, (seeking nearness to Allah, in obedience to Him")
To stand erect facing the qibla (The Ka'ba) while saying Takbirat-ul- Ihram, and to stand before the Ruku'.
Lift both hands up to the ears and say: "Allahu Akbar"
(Allah is Great).
To say Allahu Akbar in the beginning of every prayer is obligatory. It is also necessary that these two words should be pronounced in correct Arabic. It is necessary that when a person pronounces Takbirat-ul-Ihram, his body is steady, if he pronounces Takbirat-ul-Ihram intentionally when his body is in motion, his Takbir is void.
(Reciting the Surah Al-Hamd and Other Surah of Holy Qur'an): In the daily obligatory prayers, after the Takbirat-ul-Ihram, one should recite Surah al-Hamd:
Bismillᾱhir Rahmᾱnir Rahīm
Alhamdu lillahi Rabbil 'ᾱlamīn
Iyyᾱka na'budu wa iyyᾱka nasta'īn
Ihdinas sirᾱtal mustaqīm
Sirᾱtal lazīna an'amta 'alayhim
Ghayril maghzūbi 'alayhim walazzallīn.
I commence with the Name of Allah
Praise be to Allah, the Sustainer of the creation
The Compassionate, the Merciful
Lord of the Day of Judgment
You alone we worship, and to You alone we pray for help
Guide us to the straight path
The path of those whom You have favored - the Prophets and their successors
Not of those who have incurred Your wrath, nor of those who have gone astray.In the first and second Rak'at, and thereafter one should, on the basis of precaution, recite one complete Surah (in this case Surah al-Ikhlas). Surah al-Ikhlas
Bismillᾱhir Rahmᾱnir Rahīm
Qul huwallᾱhu Ahad
Lam yalid walam yulad
Walam yakun lahu kufuwan ahad.
I commence with the Name of Allah, The Compassionate, The Merciful
Say: Allah is One - the Eternal Being
Allah is He Who is independent of all beings.
He begot none, nor was He begotten
And none in the creation is equal to Him.
Do Takbir ("Allaho Akbar") and go to Ruku'.Ruku'
In every Rak'at, a person offering prayer should, after reciting the Surahs (Qira'at), bow to an extent that he is able to rest his finger tips on his knees. This act is called Ruku'.The following zikr should be recited in the ruku' once:
Subhana Rabbiyal 'Azīmi wa bihamdih
(Free from all defects is my Lord, and with His praise I bow).
Subhanallᾱh three times (Glory to Allah).After ruku' stand up in Qiyam and say:
Sami'-Allᾱhu liman hamidah
(Allah listens to one who praises Him).Then Say:
"Allᾱhu Akbar" (Allah is Great).
Now go to Sajdah(Sujud).Sujud
Sajdah means that one should place one's forehead on earth in a special manner, with the intention of humility (before Allah).
While performing Sajdahs during prayers, it is obligatory that both the palms and the knees, and both the big toes are placed on the ground.
A person offering prayers should perform two sajdahs after the Ruku', in each Rak'at of the obligatory.The following zikr should be recited in the sajdah once:
Subhana Rabbī-yal A'la wa bihamdih (Glory be to my Great Sustainer, Most High, and I praise Him).Or:
Subhanallᾱh three times (Glory to Allah).
After first Sajdah:
Sit up in a kneeling position with the ankle of the right foot in the sole of the left foot, with hands resting on the thighs and say: "Allahu Akbar"
"Astaghfir-ulᾱha Rabbī wa Atūbu ilayh" (I ask Allah, my Lord, to cover up my sins and unto Him I turn repentant).Again followed by:
"Allahu Akbar"Repeat the Sajdah again and then sit up in a kneeling position and say:
"Allahu Akbar"Sit up for a moment and then rise while saying:
"Bi- Hawlillᾱhi wa Quwatihī Aqūmu wa Aq'ud" (Due to the vigour given by Allah and because of the vitality from Him I rise and stand).
Recite Surah Al-Hamd and Other Surah of Holy Qur'an as in the first rak'at.
"Allahu Akbar"Now do Qunūt.Qunūt
Keep your hands in front of your face, turning the palms facing the sky, and keeping both, the hands and the fingers, close together and recite the following: Rabbanᾱ ᾱtinᾱ Fiddunyᾱ Hasanatan wa fil ᾱkhirati Hasanatan wa Qinᾱ Azᾱban Nᾱr (O our Lord! Bestow upon us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and protect us from the torment of the fire).
Go back to Ruku',recite the zikr, stand up momentarily and then do the two sajdah's
(just as in the first rak'at ).Tashahhud
After the second Sajdah recite the following:
"Ash hadu an lᾱ ilᾱha illal lᾱhu wahdahū lᾱ sharīka lah, wa ash hadu anna Muhammadan 'Abduhū wa Rasūluh Allᾱ-humma salli 'alᾱ Muhammadin wa ᾱli Muhammad" (I testify that there is none worth worshipping except the Almighty Allah, Who is One and has no partner, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger. O Allah! Send Your blessings on Muhammad and his progeny).
[If you are doing the Dawn prayers (Fajr), only
recite the Salaam as follows:
Assalᾱmu 'alayka ayyuhan- Nabīyyu wa rahmatullᾱhi wa barakᾱtuh (O Prophet! Allah's peace, blessings and grace be upon you).
Assalᾱmu 'alaynᾱ wa 'alᾱ 'ibadil- lᾱhis-sᾱlihīn (Allah's peace be on us, those offering prayers - and upon all pious servants of Allah).
Assalᾱmu 'alaykum wa rahmatullᾱhi wa barakᾱtuh (Allah's peace, blessings and grace be on you, believers)]
.If you are doing the Midday (Zuhr), Afternoon prayers ('Asr) or Night ('Isha), ignore the above section and then stand up for the third rak'at.
Recite Tasbīhᾱt Arba'a three times, as follows: "Subhᾱnallᾱhi wal hamdu lillᾱhi wa lᾱ ilᾱha illallᾱhu wallᾱhu Akbar" (Glory be to Allah, and all praise is for Him and there is no one worth worshipping other than Allah, and He is Greater than any description).Go back to Ruku', recite the zikr, stand up momentarily and then do the two sajdah's (just as in the first rak'at) and thereafter recite the Tashahhud
(only if this is a Dusk prayer) (just as in the second rak'at).
If you are doing the Dusk prayers (Maghrib) Only: Tashahhud
After the second Sajdah recite the following:
"Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lahu wahdahu la sharika lah, wa ash hadu anna Muhammadan 'Abduhu wa Rasuluh Alla humma salli 'ala Muhammadin wa Ali Muhammad" (I testify that there is none worth worshipping except the Almighty Allah, Who is One and has no partner, and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger. O Allah! Send Your blessings on Muhammad and his progeny).
[If you are doing the Dusk prayers (Maghrib)
recite the Salaam as follows:Assalᾱmu 'alayka ayyuhan-Nabīyyu wa rahmatullᾱhi wa barakᾱtuh (O Prophet! Allah's peace, blessings and grace be upon you). Assalᾱmu 'alaynᾱ wa 'alᾱ 'ibᾱdil-lᾱhis-sᾱlihīn (Allah's peace be on us, those offering prayers - and upon all pious servants of Allah). Assalᾱmu 'alaykum wa rahmatullᾱhi wa barakᾱtuh (Allah's peace, blessings and grace be on you believers).]Fourth Rak'at
If you are doing theMidday (Zuhr), Afternoon prayers ('Asr) or Night ('Isha),
stand up for the fourth rak'at. Recite Tasbihat Arba'a three times, as follows: "Subhᾱnallᾱhi wal-hamdu lillᾱhi wa lᾱ ilᾱha ilallᾱhu wallᾱhu Akbar" (Glory be to Allah, and all praise is for Him and there is no one worth worshipping other than Allah, and He is Greater than any description).Go to Ruku',recite the zikr, stand up momentarily and then do the two sajdah's (just as in the first rak'at) and thereafter recite the Tashahhud.
After the Tashahhud, recite the Salᾱm as follows: Assalᾱmu 'alayka ayyuhan-Nabīyyu wa rahmatullᾱhi wa barakᾱtuh (O Prophet! Allah's peace, blessings and grace be upon you).
Assalᾱmu 'alaynᾱ wa 'alᾱ 'ibadil-lᾱhis-sᾱlihīn (Allah's peace be on us, those offering prayers - and upon all pious servants of Allah).
Assalᾱmu 'alaykum wa rahmatullᾱhi wa barakᾱtuh (Allah's peace, blessings and grace be on you believers).
To perform every work in the same order as approved by the Shariah.
The religious duties performance of which is rewarded and neglect of which is punishable.