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  • 9/24/2005

Ethical Teachings of the Qur’an (Part 2)




B Disvalues

Corresponding to these values there are some disvalues which are symbolized in the Qur"an as Satan or Iblis. He is described as apersistent rebel [iv, 117] who is constantly engaged in deceiving [viii, 48] people and misleading them from the path of righteousness. [iv, 119] He sows the seeds of enmity and hatred, [v, 94] creates false desires, [iv, 120] commands what is shameful and wrong, [xxiv, 21] and defaces the fair nature created by God. [iv, 119] He is in short an enemy of mankind; [xxxv, 6; xxxvi, 6] and believers are, therefore, advised that they should beware of his machinations.


Destruction of Life

 Opposed to the value of life is weakness of man to make mischief in the earth and shed blood

[ii; 30] ‑ symbolized by the first unlawful and unjustified murder in the history of mankind by the first issue of Adam. [v, 33] All life being sacred, [vi, 151; xvii, 33] it is forbidden to commit suicide or to kill anybody without a just cause. [vi, 131, 140] It is equally sinful to murder one"s children for fear of want or poverty. [vi, 15; xvii, 31] Killing a person without reason, in the view of the Qur"an, is tantamount to slaying the human race. [v, 35] Fight for the cause of righteousness is permitted only because tumult and oppression, which neces­sitate resort to armed resistance, are worse than killing. [ii, 191]


All those tendencies which weaken a man"s hold on life are condemned in the Qur"an. People are warned of falling into fear, grief, and despair

[iii, 139; ix, 40; xli, 30] or of being unmindful of the ultimate mercy of God. [xxxix, 53] But any unjust clinging to life which involves sacrifice of other values is to be avoided at all cost. It does not become a man to be cowardly in the face of difficulties [ii, 122] or to turn back and run away for life from the battle‑field. [iv, 89‑91] Similarly, covetous­ness, [iii, 180; iv, 32; lvii, 24] niggardiiness, [xvii, 29; xlvii, 38] and the hoarding of wealth [iv, 2‑3] are condemned, for they betray man"s unjustified clinging to values as means, as if they were ends in themselves.


There are certain disvalues which imply disrespect of life in oneself as well as in others. Begging importunately from all and sundry, which leads to killing one"s self‑respect, is looked upon by the Qur"an as unbecoming a true believer. It forbids slandering,

[ix, 79; xxiv, 23: lx, 11-12] throwing fault or sin on somebody who is innocent of it, [iv, 112] and swelling one"s cheek out of pride at men. [xxxi, 18]

Scandal‑mongering and backbiting are hateful deeds.

[xxiv, 18; civ, 1] The Qur"an advises men and women not to laugh at, defame, be sarcastic to one another or call one another by offensive nicknames, and not to be suspicious, not to spy on others or speak ill of them behind their backs. [xlix, 11‑12] It deprecates the man who is ready with oaths, is a slanderer going about with calumnies, is a transgressor beyond bounds, or is deep in sin, violence, and cruelty. [lxviii, 10-13]


Things Momentary

 Opposed to his natural urge for eternity, man sometimes through ignorance seems to be enamoured of the life of the moment,

[x, 45] which tends to vanish [xvi, 96] and is mere play and amusement. [vi, 32] It is no good to be pleased and remain satisfied [x, 7] with the transitory things of this world [xvii, 18] and the fleeting and temporal life [lxxv, 20; lxxvi, 27] that has a span of but an hour of a day. [x, 45] The true goal of man is eternity which is the home of peace, [x, 25] satisfaction, [xliii, 70] security, [xliv, 51] and supreme achievement [xliv, 57] for which man must, according to his nature, ever toil and struggle. [lxxxiv, 6]


Lack of Unity

Against the value of unity there is the disvalue of the denial of the unity of the Ultimate Reality (kufr) and the association of partners with God (shirk) and likewise the disvalues of disunity, discord, and disharmony in the life of the individual and society. Those who turn back and disobey God and His Apostle

[iii, 32] deny God"s creative power, His purpose, and design, [ii, 28‑29] follow a part of the revealed book and disregard the rest, [ii, 85] accept some prophets and deny others, [iv, 150] are all deniers of the true unity of God. Hair‑splitting in religious matters, [v, 105] failure to judge by the light of divine revelation, [v, 47] indulgence in magic in order to sow seeds of disunity among people, [11, 102] are all acts which tantamount to disbelief in God.

God"s unity implies that He alone deserves worship,

[xvi, 51] a worship which demands exclusive submission to His will, [vii, 29] tinged and informed with the highest emotional attachment. [ii, 165]


Association of partners with God does not mean that, people deny God"s power of creation and control of world"s affairs;

[x, 31; xxiii, 82‑89] where they err is the belief that these partners may bring them nearer to God, [xxxix, 3] wrongly and foolishly ascribe to them a share in bestowing gifts, as for example, the gifts of a goodly child, [vii. 19] thus leading to lack of consistency in their moral conduct and lack of exclusive loyalty towards the highest ideal, which indeed is a form of most heinous sin [iv, 48] and the highest wrong‑doing [xxxi, 13]


A form of associating partners with God is ancestor‑worship. If people are invited to the path of righteousness, they refuse by saying: "Nay! we shall follow the way of our fathers," even if their fathers were devoid of knowledge and guidance.

[ii, 170; v. 107] Sometimes people succumb to their personal ambitions and self‑importance which signifies their lack of faith in the ultimate causality of God; implied in the belief in the unity of God. When some trouble or affliction comes to man he turns to God, but when it is removed he forgets that he ever turned to him, [x, 13] and ascribes its removal to others besides, [xxx, 33] sets up rivals unto Him a great blasphemy [xxxix, 8]  and sometimes thinks that it was his own skill and knowledge which helped him in removing his difficulties. [xxxix, 49]


The disvalues of discord and disunity are the result of the denial of the unity of God.

[lix, 14] The unbelievers and those who associate partners with God are always subject to fear and lack a sense of unity and harmony. [ii, 151; viii, 65] It is the devil that incites people to discord [vii, 200; xli, 36] and, therefore, the Qur"an very force­fully forbids people to be divided among themselves, [iii, 103] and looks upon dis­unity as the result of lack of wisdom. [lix, 14] It denounces divisions and splits in religion [vi, 159; xxx, 32; xlii, 13] and disagreements among different sects and schisms through in­solent envy. [xlii, 65; xlv, 17] Similarly, all those acts which tend to spread mischief and tumult after there have been peace and order are condemned because they tend to create disorder, disunity, and disharmony in life. [ii, 191, 192, 205; vii, 85; xi, 85]



Opposed to power, weakness is a disvalue. It is wrong to show weakness in face of difficulties, to lose heart,

[viii, 46] to be weak in will, [iii; 146] to be weary and faint‑hearted, [xlvii, 35] to despair or boast, [lvii, 23] to be impatient and fret­fu1. [lxx, 19, 21] It is forbidden to be afraid of men [iv, 77] or of Satan and his votaries. [iii, 175]


There are certain disvalues which arise out of misuse of power. Warning is given to those people who oppress men with wrong‑doing and insolently transgress beyond bounds through the land, defying right and justice.

[xlii, 42] It is for­bidden to indulge in vain talk, [xix, 62; xxiii, 3; xxvii, 55] to exhibit fierceness, [xlviii, 26] to be arrogant against God, [xliv, 19] for arrogance blinds people to the truth, [xxvii, 14; xxxv, 4] to swell one"s cheek with pride, or walk in insolence through the earth, [xxxi, 18] for one cannot rend the earth asunder or reach the mountains in height. [xxiii, 46] Arrogant and obstinate trans­gressors, [xl, 35] vainglorious people, [iv, 36; xvi, 23] those fond of self‑glory, [xxxviii, 2] people rebellious and wicked, [xlix, 7] and vying with one another in pomp and gross rivalry, [lvii, 20] are held out as examples of those who misuse their power. Satan is condemned to everlasting punishment for abusing power and becoming haughty. [vii, 12; xxxvii, 74‑76] Moses was sent to Pharaoh because the latter had become proud and arrogant. [xx, 24, 43] The people of "Ad were punished because they behaved arrogantly and thought themselves very powerful. [xli, 15] The Israelites slew their apostles because of pride. [ii, 87] The hypocrites turn away from truth out of arrogance. [lxiii, 5] The Christians are described as nearest in love to the Muslims because they are not arrogant. [v, 85]

Some people try to cover their misuse of power under the cloak of deter­minism,

[vi, 148; xvi, 33] but the Qur"an repudiates this stand as totally unrealistic. [vi, 149] Man has the power to shape his destiny in the light of the truth of revelation. [ii, 38]



Opposed to truth or wisdom, error, conjecture, and fancy are all disvalues which the Qur"an at several places denounces as equivalent to un­truth or lies

[vi, 148; x, 66] and which do not lend support to an individual in his moral life. [iv, 157; vi, 116; liii, 23] Fancy and conjecture can avail nobody against truth. [x, 36; liii, 28] It is forbidden to accept a report without ascertaining its truth, [xlix, 6] to utter slander, intentionally forging falsehood [lx, 12] and to throw fault or sin on some­body who is innocent of it; [iv, 112] for these are all against the value of truth. Indulgence in disputation, [xxix, 46] vain discourses; [vi, 68] and susceptibility to super­stitions [v, 106; vi, 138‑41, 143‑44] are disvalues opposed to wisdom. Those who do not try to save themselves from these are liable to be always afraid of others, [lix, 13] to be unable to distinguish truth from falsehood, and right from wrong; [ix, 81] their hearts always turn away from the light of truth and wisdom [ix, 127] towards depths of darkness. [xxlV, 40] Such are the people who have hearts wherewith they understand not, eyes wherewith they see not, and ears wherewith they hear not; in short, like cattle they lack truth and wisdom. [vii, 179]


Hypocrisy is another disvalue. A hypocrite is one who says with his tongue what is not in his heart,

[ii, 167; iv, 81; xlvii, 11] who is distracted in mind, being sincerely neither for one group nor for another. [iv, 143] Hypocrites are liars. [lix, 11; lxiii, 1] They expect people to praise them for what they never do, [iii, 1 88] compete with one another in sin and rancour, [V, 65] and hold secret counsels among themselves for iniquity, hosti­lity, and disobedience. [lvii, 8] Hypocrites‑men and women‑enjoin evil and forbid what is just, [ix, 67] and if by chance they come into possession of a position of authority, they make mischief in the land, break ties of kinship, [xlvii, 22] and yet claim to be peace‑makers. [ii, 11]

Showing off (riya") is also a disvalue. God does not love those who give away even money in order to be seen doing so by others, for such men have no faith in God and the Last Day.

[iv, 38] Such showing off cancels the spirit of their charity. [ii, 264] It is like sowing seeds on a hard, barren rock on which there is little soil, and where heavy rain has left nothing but a bare stone. [ii, 263‑64]



Opposed to the value of justice is the disvalue of injustice and violation of the principle of the mean. It is forbidden by the Qur"an to be influenced by people"s vain desires and to deviate from the truth while judging between them.

[v, 51‑53] It is also forbidden to distort justice or decline to do justice [iv, 135] or to withhold justice from people merely because they are your enemies. [v, 3, 9] It would be perfectly unjust to oneself and to others to pile up wealth, [civ, 2‑3] to bury gold and silver, and not to spend them in the cause of God and righteous­ness. [ix, 34] The Qur"an equally forbids as violation of the principle of justice the squandering of wealth like a spendthrift [xvii, 26‑29; xxv, 67] and recommends the middle way of prudence which is neither extravagance nor niggardliness. [xxx, 67] It advises one neither to make one"s hand tied to one"s neck nor stretch it forth to its utmost reach so that one becomes blameworthy and destitute. [xvii, 29] One should eat and drink but not waste by excess [vii, 31] for that would be violating the prin­ciple of justice. Excess in any form is forbidden whether in food [v, 10] or in religion. [iv, 171;V, 84]

Usury is forbidden, for it means devouring other people"s substance wrong­fully

[iv, 161] and involves injustice on both sides. [ii, 279]


Hatred and Unkindness 

 Against the value of love is the disvalue of hatred, harshness, or unkindness to others. People are advised not to speak any word of contempt to their parents,

[xvii, 23] to orphans, [xciii, 9] and to beggars. [xciii, 10] Believers are not to revile even those whose the unbelievers call upon besides God. [vi, 108] The Holy Prophet is described as safe from severity and hard‑heartedness towards others. [iii, 159]



 Against goodness the Qur"an denounces the disvalue of vice, i. e., doing wrong and shameful deeds.

[iii, 14, 110; xli, 37; liii, 32] It is Satan who commands people to do what is evil and shameful. [ii, 189, 268; xxiv, 21] People are forbidden to come near adultery, for it is a shameful deed and an evil, opening the road to other evils. [xvii, 32] Similarly, wine and gambling involve great sin, [ii, 219] for they are the work of Satan. [v, 93] The Qur’an forbids ‑ all shameful and evil deeds and uses a very comprehensive term zulm to cover them all. [vii, 28; xvi, 90] Hypocrites and unbelievers enjoin [ix, 67] and plot evil [ xxxv, 43] and hold secret counsels for iniquity, evil, and rebellion [lviii, 8]  and wrong­fully eat up other people"s property. The believers are advised, therefore, not to help one another in sin and rancour. [v, 3]


The Qur"an refers to several Satanic tendencies in man[1], such as ungrate­fulness, [vii, 10; xxxvi, 45‑47; lxxiv, 15‑25; c, 1‑8] hastiness, [xvi, 37; xvii, 11] impatience, [lxx, 19‑21] despair, and unbelief in times of adver­sity, and pride and conceit in times of prosperity; [xi, 9‑10; xvii, 83] quarrelsomeness, [xvi, 4] arrogance, [lxxv, 31‑40; xc, 5‑7] greed of ever more and yet more, [lxxiv, 15] niggardliness, [xvii, 100] transgres­sion of the bounds of propriety, [xcv3, 6] and false sense of self‑sufficiency. [xcvi, 7] These tendencies often lead to different forms of wrong‑doing and, therefore, must be counteracted by all right‑thinking people.

Moral Discipline 

Toproduce the attitude of moral righteousness (taqwa), the discipline of prayer, fasting, zakat, [358a] and pilgrimage is enforced. People are commanded to guard strictly their habit of prayers and stand before God in a devout frame of mind,

[ii, 238] pay the zakat, [xcviii, 5] spend in charity secretly and openly [xxv, 29] ‑ a beautiful loan to God‑ a bargain that will never fail, [xxv, 29] in­volving a glad tidings for the believers [xxii, 34; xxvii, 2] and a cause of prosperity [xxxi, 5] and spiritual joy. [xx, 139] Those people who follow these principles are on the right path under the true guidance of the Lord. [xxxi, 5; xcvii, 5] They remove the stain of evil from the people [xi, 114] and help them refrain from shameful and unjust deeds. [xxix, 45] It is the duty of all Muslims, as witnesses for mankind in general, to hold fast to God. [xxii, 78] It is the practice of all believing people that when God grants them power in the land, they enjoin the right and forbid the wrong. [xxii, 41] All Muslims ought to follow these disciplinary principles. [xxiv, 55.‑56] Those who neglect them are bound to fall into the snares of their passions. [xix, 59]


Similarly, fasting is recommended as a discipline during the month of Rama­dan in which the Qur"an was revealed as a guide to mankind and as an em­bodiment of guidance and judgment between right and wrong.

[ii, 185] It involves observance of certain limits and rules by all those who may wish to become righteous (acquire taqwa). [ii, 183, 187] Performance of hajj is symptomatic of a righteous life in which there should be no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling, and the best provision for which is right conduct, i. e., taqwa. [ii, 197]



Though man is by nature after the pattern of God"s nature [xxx, 30] and, therefore, capable of approximating to the ideal embodied in the most beautiful names, [vii, 180; xvii, 110; lix, 24] yet being prone to different weaknesses [xiv, 34; xvii, 11, 83] he is often led to wrong his soul in spite of his best efforts to follow moral discipline. [xi, 21, 101; xvi, 33] Adam disobeyed God and thus was about to run into harm and aggression, [ii, 35; vii, 19] but as soon as he realized his mistake, he repented and God accepted his repent­ance [ii, 37] and promised that whoever follows His guidance shall be free from grief and sorrow. [ii, 38] The Lord accepts repentance from His servants and for­gives the sins [xli, 25] of those who do evil in ignorance but repent soon afterwards [iv, 17; vi, 54; vii, 153; ix, 104; xvi, 119] and are never obstinate in persisting in the wrong intentionally. [iii, 135] Even the thieves [v, 42] and those who had waged wars against God [v, 36‑37] are covered by the universal mercy and loving kindness of God [xi, 90] provided they repent and amend their conduct, [v, 42] earnestly bring God to mind, hold fast to God, purify their religion solely for God, [iv, 136] and openly declare the Truth. [ii, 160] There is no scope, for pessimism and despair arising from the natural weak­nesses of men in doing wrong to their sou1s, [xxxlx, 53] for God turns to them that they might repent. [ix, 118] Turning to God in repentance and seeking of forgiveness from Him lead to the grant by God to man of good and true enjoyment and abounding grace in this life. [xi, 3] He will rain bounties from the sky and add to people"s strength. [xi, 52] To turn continually to God in repentance is the sign of the true believer; [ix, 112] and this attitude of mind is strengthened by remembrance of God (dhikr), for it enables a man in most difficult and odd situations to keep firm and steadfast [viii, 45] and find in it a source of deep satisfaction and mental equipoise. [xiii, 28]


It is the whole pursuit of value and avoidance of disvalue in general that is designated by the Qur"an as righteousness (taqwa). It is de­pendent on and is the result of faith in God and adoration of Him.

[ii, 21] The Qur"an is revealed solely to produce this attitude of taqwa among people. [xx,113; xxxix, 28] It is the presence of this moral attitude which saves people from destruction [xxvii, 53; xli, 18] and it is this which helps them maintain God"s commands in their conjugal life, [ii, 24; iv, 129] in sacrifice, [v 30; xxii, 37] in different aspects of social life, [ii, 177] and in fulfilling faithfully their social obligations. [xxv, 63‑74]


The motive which prompts people to adopt this moral attitude of taqwa is the desire to win the pleasure of God,

[ii, 207; iv, 114] to gain nearness to Him, [iii, 13] and to seek His face [ii, 272] or countenance [xiii, 22; xxx, 38; xcii, 18‑21] implying that their motive is not self­ interest but the seeking of good for the sake of good, [lv, 60] which benefits their own souls [ii, 272] and which they seek even at the sacrifice of life. [ii, 207] The aim of such people is mainly a desire for increase in self‑purification without any idea of winning favour from anyone or expecting any reward whatsoever. [xcii, 18‑21] They will get a reward of the highest value [iv, 114] and attain complete satis­faction [xcii, 21] and prosperity [xxx, 38]‑ the final attainment of the Eternal Home, [xiii, 22] well‑pleasing unto God. [xxxix, 28] These people resemble a garden high and fertile, heavy rain falls on it and makes it yield a double increase of harvest, and if it receives not heavy rain, light moisture suffices it. [ii, 265] For such people are the gardens in nearness to their Lord, a result of the pleasure of God. [iii, 15]


To be righteous (muttaqi) is to believe in God, and the Last Day, and the angels, and the Books, and the messengers; to spend out of one"s substance, out of love for God, for kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, for the ransom of slaves; to be steadfast in prayers, and to pay the zakat; to fulfil the contracts which have been made; and to be firm and patient in pain (or suffering), adversity, and periods of danger. Such people as follow these are possessed of true taqwa, i.e., righteousness.

[ ii, 177] And of the servants of God the most gracious are those who walk on the earth in humility, and when the ignorant address them, they say, "Peace"; those who spend the night in adoration of their Lord prostrating and standing; those who, when they spend, are not extravagant nor niggardly, but hold a just balance between these two extremes; those who invoke not, with God, any other god, nor slay such life as God has made sacred, except for just cause, nor commit fornication; those who witness no falsehood, and, if they pass by futility, they pass by it with honourable avoidance; those who, when they are admonished with the signs of their Lord, do not show indifference to them like the deaf or the blind; and those who pray, "Our Lord! give us the grace to lead the righteous." [xxv, 63‑64; 67‑68, 72‑74] The better and more lasting reward of the Lord is for those who believe and put their trust in Him; those who avoid the greater crimes and shameful deeds, and, even when they are angry, they for­give; those who hearken to their Lord, and establish regular prayer; who conduct their affairs by mutual consultation; who spend out of what God bestows on them for sustenance; who, when an oppressive wrong is inflicted on them, (are not cowed but) help and defend themselves; and those who recompense injury with injury in degree equal thereto and, better still, forgive and make reconciliation. But indeed if any do help and defend themselves after a wrong is done to them, against such there is no cause of blame. The blame is only against those who oppress men with wrong‑doing and insolently transgress beyond bounds through the land, defying right and justice; for such there will be a grievous penalty. But indeed showing patience and forgiveness is an exercise of courageous will and resolution in the conduct of affairs. [ xlii, 36‑43]


There is yet a higher stage of moral achievement described as ihsan which signifies performance of moral action in conformity with the moral ideal with the added sense of deep loyalty to the cause of God, done in the most graceful way that is motivated by a unique love for God [2]. Performance of righteous actions accompanied by a true faith is only a stage in the moral life of man which, after several stages, gradually matures into ihsan.

[v,96] God is with those who perform good deeds and perform them with added grace and beauty. [xvi, 128] Those who sacrifice animals with a spirit of dedication have piety (taqwa) no doubt, but those who thereby glorify God for His guidance, acknowledging fully the extent of His bounties provided in abundance, are the people who are characterized by ihsan. [xxii, 37] In the life hereafter the morally upright will be in the midst of gardens and springs [li, 15] wherein they will take spiritual enjoy­ment in the things which their Lord gives as a reward for leading a life of graceful righteousness. [li, 16] The sincerely devoted people (muhsinin) are those who willingly suffer thirst, fatigue, or hunger in the cause of God, [xxix, 69] or tread paths which may raise the ire of the unbelievers, or receive injury from an enemy; [ix, 120] who despite all that do not conduct themselves in life as to cause mischief on the earth but call on Him with fear and longing; [vii, 56] who spend of their substance in the cause of God, refrain from evil, and are engaged in doing truly good deeds; [ii,195] who spend freely whether in prosperity or in adversity; who restrain anger and pardon all men; [iii, 134] who are steadfast in patience [xi, 115; xii, 90] and exercise restraint; [xvi, 128] who establish regular prayer and pay the zakat and have in their hearts the assurance of the hereafter; [xxxi, 4] and who are always ready to forgive people and overlook their misdeeds. [v, 14] Almost all the prophets are included in this category [vi, 84; xxxvii, 75, 80, 83, 105, 110, 120‑21, 130‑31] which signifies that the muhsinin are those who are not only on the right path themselves, [vi, 84] but in addition by their good ex­ample and magnetic personality lead others to the way of righteousness and help in establishing a social order based on peace, harmony, and security. [ii, 193; iii, 104, 110] Com­plete power, [xii, 56] wisdom and knowledge, [xxvii, 14] true guidance from the Lord, prosperity, [xxix, 69; xxxi, 5] rise in worldly position, [ii, 58; vii, 161] power, and knowledge [xii, 22] are the by‑products of their life of graceful righteousness (ihsan). Their reward shall never be lost, [xi, 115; xii, 56] for God is always with them [xxix, 69] and loves them [ii, 195; iii, 134, 145] and will bestow on them the rank of friendship as He did on Abraham. [iv, 125] He who submits his whole self to the will of God and moreover does it gracefully and with a spirit of dedication (muhsin) has grasped indeed the most trustworthy handhold, [xxxi, 22] and enjoys the most beautiful position in religion for he is follow­ing Abraham who was true in faith. [iv, 125] He will get his reward from his Lord and shall experience neither fear nor grief. [ii, 112] God is well pleased with those who followed in the footsteps of the vanguard of Islam‑the first of those who forsook their houses and of those who gave them aid‑in a spirit of devo­tion and graceful loyalty as well as those who followed them, as they are all with Him. For them God has prepared the garden of paradise, as their eternal home of supreme felicity. [ix, 100]


1- Once the Holy Prophet said that every man has his Satan with him. Some­one asked him if there was one with him as well. He replied: Yes, but I have made him a Muslim, i.e., made him submit to my control.

2- In the Mishkat, there is a tradition which relates that a stranger one day came to the Holy Prophet and asked him, among other things, what ihsan is. The Holy Prophet replied, "Serve the cause of God as if you are in His presence. If it is not possible to achieve this stage, then think as if He is watching you do your duty." This tradition clearly emphasizes the attitude of deep loyalty tinged with an emotional response of love towards God.


B.A Dar

(M.A, Fellow Institute of Islamic Culture, Lahore)

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