FATIMA IN QUR'AN
FATIMA IN THE VERSE OF RELATIONSHIP
The verse of relationship, from the Quran, says:
"Say: `No reward do I ask of you for this except the love of those near of kin. 'And if anyone earns any good, We shall give him an increase of good in respect there of for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Ready to appreciate (service)."(42: 23)
This verse is a clear command from Allah to His noble Prophet. It is as follows:
(Say) O Muhammad, to your nation: (no reward do I ask of you for this) the message of Islam (except the love of those near of kin) to me. (i.e.) Ahlul-Bayt (A).
It is unanimously agreed upon that the kin mentioned in this verse are Ahlul-Bayt (A). There are many traditions narrated by both Shiite and Sunni Scholars, which not only specify the kin mentioned in this verse, but also state their names. Among the narrations mentioned in this regard by Sunni scholars, are the following:
When this verse was revealed, someone said:"Messenger of Allah, who are the kin whose love is obligatory for us?"
The Prophet (S) replied: "Ali,Fatima, and her two children."
This narration has been reported by the following Sunni scholars
1. Ibn Hajar in his al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah.
3. Al-Suyuti in al-Durr al-Manthur.
4. Abu Nu'aym in Hilyat al-'awliya
5. al-Hamawayni al-Shafi'i in Fara'id al-Samtayn
Another narration similar to the one stated above, is reported by Tabari and Ibn Hajar; according to this narration the Messenger of Allah (S) is reported to have said:
"Surely Allah made it incumbent on you to love my kin, and I will ask you about them in the hereafter."
Moreover, the following narrations mentioned on the account of Ahlul-Bayt are a few of the many saying of the Imams (A) in which they recite this verse as proof of the fact that loving them is a religious duty:
A. It is written in al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah by Ibn Hajar that Imam Ali (A) said:
"It is stated in the (Quranic chapter) Ha Mim that no one upholds our love save the faithful ones."
He then read:
"Say: `No reward do I ask of you for this except the love of those near of kin, and if any one earns any good, We shall give him an increase of good in respect thereof; for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, most ready to appreciate (service). "(42: 23)
B. It has also been reported in the same book that Imam Hassan (A) gave a speech in which he said:
"Surely we are among the Ahlul-Bayt whose love and support were made incumbent (upon the faithful) by Allah, the Exalted. He-- Glory be to Him, said:
"Say: `No reward do I ask of you for this except the love of those near of kin, and if arty one earns any good, We shall give him an increase of good in respect thereof. For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, most ready to appreciate (service).'"(42: 23)
C. Imam Ali Ibn Al-Hussain (Zain Al-Abedeen (A)) replied to the Syrian who said to him while he was a prisoner of the Umayyads in Damascus:
"Praise be to Allah Who killed you..etc. "
Then he (A) said: "Haven't you read the verse:
'Say: `No reward do I ask of you for this except the love of those near of kin, and if any-one earns any good, We shall give him an increase of good in respect thereof; For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, most ready to appreciate (service). "'(42: 23)
D. Jabir Ibn Abdullah said:
"A beduin came to the Prophet (S) and said: 'Muhammad, present Islam to me.'
'The Prophet replied: `Bear witness that there is no God but Allah, to whom an associate does not exist; and that Muhammad is the slave and Messenger of Allah. '
The beduin said: `Do you require any reward from me (for bringing me to Islam)?'
He (S) answered:`No, save loving the nearest of kin.'
The beduin then asked: `Mine or yours?'
The Prophet (S) said: `My kin.'
The beduin said: `Let me pay allegiance to you, and may the curse of Allah be on those who do not love you and your kin.'
Thus he (S) said: 'Amen.'"
This narration has been reported by Al-Kinji in Kefayat At-Talib p.31.
Sheikh Amini (may Allah bless his soul) listed forty-five (45) sources in v.3 of Al-Ghadeer which state that the verse was revealed regarding Ali, Fatima, Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain (A). They are: Imam Ahmad, Ibn al-Mundir, Ibn Abu Hatim, Tabari, Ibn Mardawaih, Tha'labi, Abu Abdullah al-Mula, Abu Sheikh Nisaee, Wahidi, Abu Nu'aym, Bagawi, Bazaz, Ibn Maghazili, Hasakani, Muhib al-Deen, Zamakhshari, Ibn Asaker, Abu al-Faraj, Hamueeni, Nishabouri, Ibn Talhe, Razi, Abu al-Saoud, Abu Hayan, Ibn Abu al-Hadeed, Baidhawi, Nasfi, Haithami, Ibn Sabagh, Ganji, Manawi, Qastalani, Zarandi, Khazin, Zargani, Ibn Hajar, Samhoudi, Suyuti, Safuri, Saban, Shab Lanje, Handhrami, and Nabhawi.
FATIMA (A) IN THE VERSE OF MUBAHALA
Allah, the Exalted said:
"If anyone disputes in this matter with thee, now after (full) knowledge hath come to thee, say: `Come! Let us gather together; our sons arid your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves. Then let us invoke the curse of God on those who lie!'"(3: 61)
This event is famous and is known to all Muslims. Islamic scholars are united on the fact that it was revealed in regard to the Christian delegation who came from Najran to dispute the issue of Isa Ibn Maryam (A) with the Prophet (S). In v.6 of Bihar, Imam Ali (A) mentioned the event in the following manner:
A delegation of Najrani Christians led by three prominent men, Al-Aqib, Muhsen, and the Archbishop; these meet along with two prominent jews came to the Prophet (S). They intended to argue with him; the archbishop started:
"Abu Al-Qasim, who was Musa's father?"
The Prophet answered: "Imran."
The archbishop then said: "Who was Yusufsfather?"
The Prophet answered: "Yaqoub."
The archbishop continued: "May I be your sacrifice; who is your father?"
The Prophet answered: "Abdullah Ibn Abd al-Muttalib."
Then the archbishop asked: "Who is Isa's (Jesus) father?"
The Prophet (S) waited a moment while Gabriel revealed the following to him: "(Say) he was the Spirit of Allah and His Word."
The archbishop then asked: "Can he be a spirit without having a body?"
Again a revelation was sent to the Prophet (S) the revelation is as follows:
"The similitude of Isa before Allah is as that of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him: `Be.' And he was."
When the archbishop heard this, he jumped in objection to the Prophet saying that Isa (A) was created from dust, and said:
"Muhammad, We don't find this to be in the Torah, the Bible, or in the Zabour. You are the first one to say this."
This was the moment that the verse of Mubahala was revealed.
After the delegation had heard the verse, they said:
"Assign for us a solemn meeting (in which every side supplicates to Allah to curse the other side if they are followers of falsehood)."
The Prophet's answer to this was: "Tomorrow morning, if Allah wills."
The next morning, the Prophet finished his morning prayers and ordered Ali to follow him and Fatima, in turn, holding Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain to follow Ali.
The Prophet (S) then told them:"When I supplicate you should say: Amen."
When the delegation saw the holy family and that the Prophet (S) had spread a mat for himself and family, they said to each other:
"By Allah, he is a true Prophet; and if he curses us, surely Allah will answer his prayer and destroy us. The only thing that can save us, is to ask him to relieve us from this meeting."
Razi, in his interpretation of the Holy Quran states:
'The Archbishop said: "O Christians, I surely see faces of men, who if they were to ask Allah to move a mountain, He would surely do it. Do not hold this meeting, or you shall be destroyed and no Christian will remain on Earth until the Day of Resurrection."
The delegation proceeded toward the Messenger and said:"Abu Al-Qasim, relieve us (from this) solemn meeting."
The Prophet said: "Indeed I will; but the One who sent me with righteousness is my witness that had I cursed you, Allah would not have left a Christian on the face of the earth."
This has been a summary of the story. What matters to us here, is Allah's saying in the verse:
"Our women and your women."
All Muslims have agreed that the Prophet took Ali with him to represent "ourselves,"
Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain to represent "Our Sons," and Fatima Zahra to represent "Our Women," It is also a given fact that he did not accompany any other woman including his wives, his aunts, or any other Muslim women.
This proves that there was not a woman as excellent, great, holy, and chaste as Fatima (A) was. The Prophet called Fatima alone to join him, because she was the only woman capable of fulfilling the qualifications of the verse
FATIMA IN SURAH AL-INSAN (76)
Allah the Exalted has said:
"Verily the Good shall drink of a Cup (of wine) mixed with Kafur. A fountain where the Devotees of God do drink, making it flow in unstinted abundance. They perform (their) vows, and they fear a Day whose evil lies far and wide. And they feed, for the love of God, the indigent, the orphan and the captive. Saying, `We feed you for the sake of God alone; no reward do we desire from you, nor thanks.' `We only fear a Day of distressful Wrath from the side of our Lord.' But God will deliver them from the evil of that day, and will shed over them a light of Beauty and a (blissful) Joy. And because they were patient and constant, He will reward them with a Garden and (garment of) silk. Reclining in the (Garden) on raised thrones, they will see there neither the sun's (excessive heat) nor (the moon's) excessive cold. And the shades of the (Garden) will come low over them, and the bunches (of fruit), there, will hang low in humility. And amongst them will be passed round vessels of silver and goblets of crystal; Crystal clear, made of silver. They will determine the measure thereof (According to their wishes). And they will be given to drink there of a Cup (of wine) mixed with Zanjabil. A fountain there, called Salsabil.
And around about them will (serve) youths of perpetual (freshness): if thou seest them, thou wouldst think them scattered Pearls. And when thou lookest, It is there thou wilt see a Bliss and a Realm Magnificent. Upon them will be green garments of fine silk and heavy brocade, and they will be adorned with Bracelets of silver; and their Lord will give to them to drink of a Wine pure and Holy. Verily this is a Reward for you, and your Endeavor is accepted and recognized." (76: 5-22)
These verses were revealed after Ali, Fatima, Hassan, and Hussain (A) gave charity to needy people; this story is stated in the book Al-Kashaf by Zamakhshari; it goes as follows:
"Ibn Abbas said:
`Once Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain (A) were ill, the Messenger of Allah and a group went to visit them. The visitors suggested to Imam Ali (A) to make a vow to Allah: if He were to relieve them, he would perform some good action. Therefore, Imam Ali together with Fatima and their servant Fidhdha vowed to Allah that they would fast for three days if He would relieve Hassan and Hussain.'
'When Allah had relieved them, Imam Ali (A)borrowed three (3) aswu (a cubic measure) of barley from a Jew known as Shimon. Fatima ground one (1) sa'a (singular of aswu) of the barley and baked five loaves of bread for her family's meal at sunset. As sunset approached, a needy man knocked on the door and said: Assalamu Alaikum, Family of Muhammad. I am a needy man from among the Muslims, feed me, may Allah feed you from the food of Paradise.' The holy family preferred the needy man over themselves and spent the night with nothing in their stomachs save water.'
'They fasted the second day, and again at sunset, when they were waiting for their food, an orphan asked them for help and they again preferred him over themselves. The third evening a captive (prisoner of war) asked them for help and they repeated their preference for the needy above themselves.'
'The following morning, Imam Ali (A) took Al-Hassan and Al-Hussain to the Messenger of Allah (S)who said the following when he saw them shaking like little chicks from hunger:
"The Prophet said: It displeases us to see you in this condition.'
Then he went with them, for he wanted to see Fatima. When they arrived, Fatima (A) was in the Mehrab (prayer place), and her condition was such that it further displeased the Prophet (S).At this time, Gabriel descended and said:
`Take this chapter Muhammad, - Allah surely congratulates you for having this family. "
It is worthy to state that the Good ones mentioned here are Ali, Fatima, Hassan and Hussain; who deserve Paradise because of their act of feeding the needy, the orphan, and the captive.
Another point to keep in mind here is that despite the detailed description of Paradise given in the verses, Allah, the Exalted, does not mention the huris. This understood to be in honor and exaltation of Fatima (A) the wife of Imam Ali, and the mother of Hassan and Hussain