Shah evasion from Iran
(26 Day 1357 / 15 January 1978)
By primary sparking of Revolution, pressure of opponent forces of regime, revolt of people with Imam's leadership, cruelly pogrom in 17th Shahrivar, holding the fortieth ceremony of different martyrs in Tehran, Tabriz, Isfahan and Meshed strike of National Oil Company laborers, and more important, publishment of Ahmad Rashidi Motlagh insulting proclamation which had mentioned some matters against Imam, all together made the country security uncontrollable and in a short period, weakened the pedestal of authority of the 2500-year Imperial regime and led to escape of the first-rate person of the country.
In that date all of the political supervisors agreed that solving the crisis with Shah presence is not possible and the leader of Islamic Revolution, under any circumstances would never tolerate Shah and Imperial regime presence. Also Shah was aware of it. After falling Azhary military government in establishing peace and calmness and strikes adjustment which had paralyzed the economy, Shah had no way except going out of country. The formalities of Shah Departure were private and unofficial. The escorts were Prime Minister, Chief of Assemblies, Minister of the Court, Chief of army general staff and some authorities related to the Court. Mehr-Abad airport was under the siege of the armored units of the Imperial Army. On11.30 a.m Shah and his wife entered the airport with a helicopter. Shah in a short interview said:" I feel tired for sometime and need rest. By the way, I have said I will travel after government establishment. This trip starts now and I leave Tehran to Aswan in Egypt. I hope that by today verdict of the National Consultative Assembly after Senate verdict, government can be successful to remedy past and establish bright future."
He added on duration of trip:" This trip depends on my mood and now I can't determine the duration exactly." On 12.30p.m, Shah and his wife, after farewell ceremonies leftTehran to Egypt by private Booing 727. The background of Revolution, which terminated Imperial regime in Iran in 1357 (1978), was preparing from some years ago in heyday of Shah Power. Some foreign analysis have known the 1975, latter parts of 1353 (1974) and the first 9 months of 1354, as the beginning of down falling of Shah Power in Iran. The events that happened in this year all indicated powering of Shah Status and Imperial regime in Iran. After making four times as much in 1973 to 1974, oil income reached to 20 billion dollars annually, which was an exorbitant sum.
Shah with declaring a solo party system in Esfand 1353 (January 1974), had stabilized his despotic rule, making peace with Iraq and signing a contract between two countries which was organized on Algeria statement, terminated all Iran worries about its western territory, Iran community concerning all west and east countries developed and many foreign politicians sloped to this country to profit by blessing of violate increase of oil income. Meanwhile, celebrants of Imperial 2500-year ceremonies, decided to dispose new ceremonies. This time, fiftieth year of Pahlavi monarchy in Aban 1354, was a good reason for their waste. Asad-Allah Alam chose one of his assistants, Dr.Baheri who was one of the "Toode" party [i]
members, for supervising the propagandistic programs of these ceremonies, and tens of books on Pahlavi family description published which all started by Alam signature. In February 1976, during Ford Presidency and eleven months before Carter entrance to White House, an investigative council on behalf of CIA under the supervision of "Ernest O'Neil" prepared a report on Imperial family and government structure inIran which distributed among the collection of security magazine of CIA and some high rank authorities of America in limited circulation. In this report, Imperial family of Iran was introduced as center of immorality and voluptuous people and more describe Ashraf Pahlavi as the most influential and vicious members of family. CIA reporter in Shah Personality description mentioned him as a self-centered man who just gets information from his own family members and some others in his Court. He doesn't consult with anybody and other people just do his orders. CIA report on government structure in Iran stands on this truth that Iran is just the fief of forty families that state authorities and business are under their control. And after them 150 to 160 families are on the second position and form second rank of political authorities and commercial activities. All these 200 families, have been replaced to 1000 families power which Americans named them as ruling families of Iran in past. CIA report on description of political structure of Iran also mentioned:" Government and parliament inIran have no power of such similar government in democratic ones and actually don't play any roll except performing Shah Decision." After Carter election in 1977, Shah decided to attract Americans. First, changed the 13-year government of Hoveida and elected Jamshid Amoozgar who was an educated politician in America as a governor and set off to that country to show his honesty. Crowded demonstration of opponents when he was entering the White House which causes police attack and throwing tear gas and shedding tears of Carter and his guests was the beginning of unpleasantness of this trip. But from the first meeting with new President, Shah bowed down and promised to prevent the increase of oil price. In these discussions, Shah had done everything and had regained his self-confidence when he was coming back and again leaned to monarchy throne at ease. But economic problems and chaos arising from past waste and on the other hand the aggravation of antagonism against self-centered government gradually created a movement in society which it was too hard to control. Amoozgar failed and on the other hand Hoveida, past Prime Minister who was appointed as Minister of Court, did not refrain from doing any sabotage. Finally, Hoveida by publishing an insulting article to Imam in Ettelaat newspaper in 17 Day 1356 (6 January 1977), showed his hostility to Amoozgar government. That so and so article prepared in Court by Hoveida and Shah endorsed it and even embittered its tune. The article was sent to Etelaat newspaper without awareness of Prime Minister of its content. Finally Amoozgar government dismissed and Shah appointed Sharif Imami who was one of the Britain agents to attract Britain and America both. Sharif Imami appointment as a Prime Minister, didn't provide any of Shah Expectations. Violate withdrawal of government against opponents and newspaper freedom, led to increase in opposed activities against regime. Hasty measure of government in martial law establishment, created tragedy of 17th Shahrivar in Zhale Square (now Shohada Square). Global reflection of this tragedy, prevented regime from doing martial law and caused new demonstrations and strikes. Shooting to students in 13th Aban 1357 at Tehran University and killing some of them caused an incomparable demonstration in 14th Aban in Tehran. The same day Shah flew above the city with helicopter and after seeing flames in different parts of city came back to Niavaran palace and summoned the ambassadors of Britain and America to notify them his decision based on establishing a military government. Ambassador of America after listening to Shah Speech said that he has been anticipating this decision so demanded the policy of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of America and Washington agreed with establishing a military government in Iran. Ambassador of Britain also said:" Britain government would confirm whatever your majesty give counsel to his country. After this meeting, Shah appointed field marshal Azhari as Prime Minister and the following day while establishing military government announcement, he declared that has heard the Revolution and promised to remedy past mistakes.
Of the first few days, military government was unable to control the country and again demonstrations and strikes aggravated. Actually, martial law was unable too, because martial law rules didn't carry out. Martial law during Azhari prime ministry was too sever especially against newspapers, but writers didn't accept censorship and stroked and people preferred alien radios to be informed of the news in the country. Expansion of strikes all over the country, especially oil industry, had paralyzed the country and foreign exchange income reached zero. Shah for being released of this trouble, appointed Dr. Sedighi as Prime Minister. Dr. Sedighi after one week research and consultation didn't accept Shah Suggestion. Shah invited Shapoor Bakhtiar to establish government. He accepted but under the condition of full authority and departure of Shah from country after giving confidence vote of Assemblies to government. Shah accepted all these conditions hopelessly.
On the last days, Farah tried to convince Shah to resign of Imperial rank. Shah didn't accept and said that is useless. Nobody knows what was Farah decision in controlling the country during Shah absence, but certainly also Farah was unable in that crisis conditions. Finally, Shah in 26 Day 1357 after long years cruelly and crime, escaped. Of the Imperial family members just Farah stayed inIran but she went out later with her husband. After Shah departure from Iran, people celebrated this splendid triumph by coming to streets and less than a month after Shah escape, Imperial regime fell down and scroll of Imperial 2500-year regime was destroyed in 22nd Bahman 1357 (10 February 1978).