The Martyrdom of Ayatollah Dr. Mohammad Mofatteh(1307 - 27 Azar 1358 /1928 - 18 December 1979)
Mohammad Mofatteh was born in 1307 Shamsi (1928) in a clergy family in Hamedan [i]
. Hojat-ol-Islam Haj Mahmoud Mofatteh, one of the proper preachers and a lover of Islam's prophet & Imams was his father. Elder Mofatteh was professional in Farsi & Arabic Literature, as well as a poet engaging Farsi & Arabic eulogy & elegy for the Holy family of Islam religion. He had taught English & Arabic in the seminary of Hamedan. From his early years, Dr. Mofatteh was learning literature from his father and after finishing primary school, entered (Akhound Molla Ali) school to learn Islamic education. Using the knowledge of the great professors, sometimes later he immigrated to Qom seminary. In the Dar- ol- Shafa School he did his best to obtain religious science education, he was a student of the cognoscenti like: Ayatollah Seyed Mohammad Hojat Kouh Kamari, Ayatollah Boroujerdi, Ayatollah Seyed Mohammad Mohaghegh (Damad), Allameh Tabatabai the owner of Almizan & Imam Khomeini so he became a great instructor in the seminary.
in which period that university was the home of paganism in the clergy eye view & learning of new science was known as being opposite of religion, and going to the university had brought a bad reputation for clergies by the publicity of exploiters, Martyr Mofatteh entered university. He was a meister in Qom at that time. Besides achieving the highest degree in the Qom seminary, he successfully gained his PHD from university. His Doctorate thesis was a study about "Nahj-ol- bagaghe" and was accepted (with a very good degree) by the university. Cultural Activities & Authorships
After finishing his education in university, Master Mofatteh had taught in high schools inQom in addition to teaching in the seminary.
Getting that it is a plot of colonialism to separate university goers & clergies, he tried to bring unity and make consistency between these two classes of the society. In despite of opposite climate, his essay about the unity of the seminary & the university that published in the Maktab-e-Islam magazine witnesses his thoughts in this issue. Being faithful to his goals, from the very beginning, he tried to illumine scholars' minds & made his classes the nucleus of their constitutions aiming crusade against the monarchy. He also established Students' Islamic Union, co-operating with martyr Beheshti for achieving this purpose. He did so in addition to crusade against the ignorance in the both home of seminary & high school.
In his eye view, there was no contrast between education & crusade; rather, he knew awareness & education as a dimension of the crusade. He had tried to make up the doctrinal awareness of theologians & students when he tried to boost their crusade level.
During the time of study & teaching, he glossed the Mollasadra's "Asfaar"- he was the third one who did so. He also wrote a book named "The Way of Thinking" that was taught in the both seminary& university for the highest level of the logic. He also translated "Majma-ol-Bayan Exegesis".
To establish the constitution & manage the theologians & erudite, he handled a council named "Scientific Sits of Islam " that activated broadly in the aim of presence the main face of Islam to the society. In these sits that were convene under the support of Mofatteh, crudités & authors of seminary, had rendered their works on Islamology.
Their books published after having been criticized & making necessary corrections on them as well as being wrote an acknowledgement by Mofatteh. After discovering council's influence on the introducing the Real Islam, it was discontinued by the Security & Information organization of the Country(Savak).
This council published only 10 books during its lifetime, concluding:
1. Islam the Pioneer of Movements
2. With Muslims' Weakness, the World is on the Verge of Collapse
3. Shiite and Despot Thrones
4. Worldview & Cosmocity of Imam Ali
5. Prayer, the Element of Improvement or Stagnation
6. The colonialism souvenirs
7. The prophet's wives
8. Our Pilgrimage; Superstition or truth
During the time of his education & instruction, Master wrote different essays in various magazines like Shiite ideology, Islam Ideology, Ja'fari Education, etc. Through those essays, he tried to extend the noble & the revolutionary culture of Shiite in the vast surface of the society. Crusades
During 1340-1342, his lectures in different cities to illumine the stands of the Islamic Movement & denounce the face of the throne had had a deep influence on the mob. Because of that, they all followed by arrestment and torment for him.
After Imam Khomeini's exile, he boosted his crusades. He went to Khouzestan to illumine the nature of the throne & identify the Movement of Imam Khomeini for people. Even Savak with lots of arrestments and prohibition of him from preaching people (pulpohibition!!) could not stop his activities. At last they announced him not to have right to enter any of cities of Khouzestan.
Popularity & acceptability among theologians & students bring him the result of dismissal from Education & Cultivation & banishment to the bad climates of the south ofIran in 1347. They prevented from entering to Qom after finishing the period of banishment, so he had been forced to live in Tehran & this became as a new prelude in his politic life. He was invited by Divinity Faculty to teach there. With the hope of another victory in front of the throne & opening another window to continue his crusade as well as desire of collaboration with Professor Motahari, who had taught there, led him to accept to teach in that faculty. From that time, his life and activities in Tehran just began.
In addition to teach in that faculty & extending the opportunities to co-operate with Professor Motahari, giving a positive answer to the invitation of the Islamic Union of Tehran University's students make every effort to in its masque. His speeches in the masque of university had provoked intelligentsia & literati to Islam.
He also did many scientific activities as well as catechizations & speeches in the Hoseinieh Ershad [ii]
. He continued his works in Javid Masque in 1352 with the allowance of its clergy to fulfill the happening void. He formed a library & classes of faith, philosophy, Quran exegeses, Nahj-ol- balaghe,
Javid Masque became as a strength center for revolution and many students & lettered people shared in it. At last, after one year and a half, in 3 Azar 1353, after Ayatollah Khameneii's speech Javid Masque was closed by Savak and Mofatteh was arrested and was imprisoned. After being free from prison, he had not allowed to continue his works in that masque any more. He accepted to be the clergy of Qoba Masque located near Ershad Hoseinieh.
In a meeting attending Ayatollah Taleqani, Martyr Motahari, etc. they decided for the name of the Masque to be"Qoba",
aiming to remain the first Masque of Muslims that was built by the prophet, and been the symbol of illumination & starting a hegira in the bloody crusade of the Muslim nation.
At the same time with Ramazan of 1356 in which the throne announced "free political atmosphere" because of changing of tactics of the arrogant power of the U.S.A, he denounced the traitorous nature of this motto & managed meetings using the weakness of the throne in the Qoba masque. These meetings delivered for about 30 thousand audiences for the first time during the new history of Iran. In the "Fitr prayer" of the same year, which was hold in Qeitarie, and many people attended there, he did his best to suppress the throne. In the orations of that prayer, he called the name of Imam Khomeini & emphasized on his leadership for the first time.
His crusades continued until Ramazan of 1357 in the acme of Islamic Movement under the leadership of Imam Khomeini. After prayer he emphasized on absolute leadership of Imam Khomeini announced 16 Shahrivar 1357 (7 September 1978) as holiday for acknowledgement of martyrs of Ramazan. It happened a grand rally against the throne on that day that make the rally of 17 of Shahrivar possible.
Many people died in that rally because of shooting of the army. That day later called"bloody Friday".
He, Mofatteh and his other friends formed a reception committee for Imam to welcome him home in the best manner.
Immediately after establishing Revolution Council by Imam, Mofatteh became on of its member. After triumphant of Islamic revolution, he tried hardly to confirm committees of Islamic Revolution. He, himself became the head of the committee of fourth sector ofTehran. His last responsibility was being the head of Theology Faculty & membership of Extending High Education Council. He was successful in both as well as being the clergy of Qoba Masque.
Finally, after trying in the best manner for improving the stand of religion during his whole lifetime, at9 o'clock on 27 Azar 1358, accompanied by two other people including Javad Bahmani & Asghqar Ne'mati were shot at the arrival of Theology Faculty by members of Forqan Group. He reposed after a brilliant funeral ceremony in the holy quadrangle of Holy Ma'soumeh inQom. His death day announced as the day of unity of seminary & university because of his attempt aiming this.
- a city placed in the west ofIran
- A place for religious ceremonies and gatherings inTehran