Mirza Kouchak Khan Jangaly
(1259- 11 Azar 1299 / 1880 –2 December 1920)
Mirza young known Mirza Kouchak the sun of Mirza Bozorg was born inRasht in 1259 Shamsi (1880). From the very beginning of his life, he started learning rudiments of religious science inHaji Hasan School, located in Saleh Abad, Rasht and sweeping school.
Joining libertarians in Gilan he dispatched toTehran for subduing Mohammad Alishah in 1286 Sh. (1907). In the peak of constitutional movement (Mashroute Nehzat) in Tehran, a number of Rasht libertarians established a society called Ettehad assembly and gathered a group of devotees.
Mirza Kouchak Khan, a liberalist Theological student at the time, joined Ettehad assembly. In 1289 (1910), he took part in the battle with Mohammad Ali Shah's adherence, in Torkaman Sahra. Five years later, the Ettehad Assembly was supplanted by Ettehad-e-Islam mission including a group of 17 members _ most of them were clergymen, Mirza was the influential member among them. And later became the leader of mission, established official and martial organization.
After a while Ettehad-e-Islam mission conversed to Ettehad-e-Islam committee and the members increased to 27. Mirza was in charge of the committee. A vast area of Gilan and parts of Mazandaran, Tarom, Astara, Talesh, Kojour, Tonekabone have been under the reign of the committee by the end of 1296 Sh. (1917).
It was also called "Jangal movement” as well as “Jangal party”.
Martial activities of Jangal movement in Farvardin 1297 Sh. (1918)
After some conflicts with English Army force, Jangal movement devotees authorized important regions ofRasht _ Manjil route. Two months later, among to leaveIran clond pichrakhuve,the Russian army officer alloied an English General, Dosterwil who wanted to go to Badkoabeh through Anzali. Russian army battled "Ettehad-e-Islam" committee, while English armored cars and fighter planes supported them. After occupying Manjil's route toRasht and Anzali, English forces were settled in both ends. Meanwhile Ettehad-e-Islam committee occupied Rasht but ten days later, English forces defeated them. On 27 Mordad 1297 (19 Aug. 1918), a compact was signed between English and Ettehad-e-Islam committee. Signing this compact caused a note of discord creep in the committee in such a way that Mirza announced party’s dissolution. Afterwards he established “Gilan revolutionary committee”. A number of leaders of Ettehad-e-Islam committee withdrew; group of Radicals joined the new committee.
In order to obliterate Jangal Movement, in Bahman 1297, Seyyed Mohammad Tadayyon delivered a message of peace from Vosouqod-dole to Mirza Kouchak Khan, the leader, asking him to yield to government. But it was ignored by Mirza. On 18 Esfand 1297 (10 March 1918), Vosouqod-doleh appointed Teimourtash as a fully authorized governor of Gilan. In Khordad 1298 (1919), Colonel Starosleski, the commander of Cossacks, was sent on duty to suppress Gilan Movement. DuringRasht subjugating operation, English planes and artillery was also engaged. Before Colonel Tekachincov’e attack, Tehran governor, wrote a safeguarding certificate for Mirza. Again Mirza refused it and after some conflicts, a number of Movement leaders such as Dr. Heshmat surrendered to government forces_ Dr. Heshmat was a popular man in Lahijan according to his medical services. He had formed a group of hundreds called“National government”
. He was a close friend of Mirza, thus the government forces emancipated him to persuade his friend to surrender. At any result, he must have introduced himself after ten days, whether succeeding or not. Returning to Lahijan, Dr. Heshmat was in doubt and delayed in introducing himself to government. Therefore a battalion of soldiers were sent to seize him. He strifed with the soldiers; some of “National Military” members were killed and Dr. Heshmat was arrested. He was sentenced to execution in military court in 20 Ordibehesht 1298 (11 May 1919).
Jangal Movement and Leaders of Russian October revolution
Despite the Jangalians’ opposition to the Tzarian Russia, in the very first period of October Revolution, they bound a good relationship with Russians. However after a time, the Russians changed their policy, gave up supporting Jangal Movement and eventually betrayed them.
In 28 Ordibehesht 1299 Sh. (18 May 1920), the Red Army entered Anzali and Qazian ports in order to suppress the so-called counterrevolutionaries. Jangalians couldn’t bear the presence of foreign forces inIran’s territory and considered them as threat to Country’s independence. Esmail Aqa Jangaly sent Mirza’s nephew as a representative to visit the Red Army commander. At the beginning, he asked about Mirza and declared severe tendency to talk to him. Thus Mirza at the head of a board went to Anzali, held a meeting with the commander of Red Army and achieved an agreement on some issues.
Jangalys’ agreement with movement leaders came toRasht and announced Republic.
They published a declaration, indicated to corruptions in government organization and English forces crimes. And at the end they announced their stands as follows:
The red revolution Society abolished monarchy principles and recognized republic.
The short – lived republic is in charge of guarding people’s life and properties.
All kinds of treaties were held, recently or in the past with every government, are cancelled.
The short-lived republic recognizes equality of rights for all human being and Islamic goals preservation is required of the Edalat party’s coup.
After the Red Army assault againstIran, some members of Edalat communist part inBaku entered Gilan fromRussia. They formed a new [arty there named Edalat and gradually violated the agreements between Jangalys and Russian forces within holding meetings and speeches against Mirza. In Tir 1299 Sh. (1920), Mirza leftRasht in objecting to Edalat. He announced that he would not return unless the Edalt party stops its anti-Islam activities and does not publicize Communism. Follows after Ehsan Allah khan and Khalou Qorban, who were Mirza’s intimate friends earlier, decided to put the into action what they had planned. They wanted to kill Mirza or sieze him and depose him from leading revolution. Mirza, having been aware of their treacherous plan got away to Jungle. In the following conflicts many of Jangalys were killed or injured.
The movement’s defeat and Mirza’s martyrdom
After Khalou ghorban surrendered, the government forces enteredRasht. The peace negotiations between them and the Jangalys failed therefore they attacked the Jangalys. Some of the Jangalys were killed, some surrendered and the rest scattered. In such a hard situation, Mirza left his family and withdrew to jungle in order to gather his scattered forces and organize them. But in his way toAzerbaijan, he was ruined of severe cold. The soldiers who had followed him considered he was dead and decapitated him still alive.
His tomb is located inRasht now and is the sign of resistance against strangers.