Multan Division lies between north latitude 29'-22' and 30'-45 and east longitude 71'-4' and 72'-4'55/Pakistan. It is located in a bend created by five confluent rivers. The Sutlej separates it from Bahawaipur District and the Chenab from Muzaffargarh district. Area:
5,630 sq. miles (approximately) Population:
About 215 meters (740 feet) above sea level Topography:
Vast plain ground dissected by rivers, canals and narrow water channels
Multan is a city in south central Punjab province. It is built just east of the Chenab River. About 966 km from Karachi and more or less right in the center of the country lay the ancient city of Multan. Multan, the City Shrines' is a prosperous city of bazaars, mosques, shrines and superbly designed tombs.
A circular road around the rampart gave access to the city through thirteen gates. Some of the imposing structures of these gates are still preserved. In the bazaars of the Old City one still comes across tiny shops where craftsmen can be seen busy turning out master-pieces in copper, brass, silver as well as textiles in the traditional fashion.
The old city has narrow colorful bazaars full of local handicrafts and narrow winding lanes. There are many places of historical, cultural and recreational interest in the city.
Multan is a commercial and industrial center; it is connected by road a rail with Lahore and Karachi and by air with Karachi, Quetta, and Faisalabad. Industries include fertilizer, soap, and glass factories; foundries; cotton, woolen and silk textile mills; flour, sugar and oil mills; and a large thermal-power station. It is famous for its handicrafts (ceramics and camel-skin work) and cottage industries. The numerous shrines within the old city offer impressive examples of workmanship and architecture.
It was built on a mound separating it from the city by the old bed of river Ravi. Its date cannot be fixed with accuracy. When intact, its circumference was 6,600 ft. having 46 bastions, including two towers at each of the four gates i.e., Delhi Gate, Khizri Gate, Sikhi Gate and Rehri Gate. The fort was ravaged by the British to avenge the murder of one Mr. Agnew in 1848. At present it is survived by some parts of the old rampart and bastions besides the shrines of Hazrat Bahauddin Zakaria and Shah Rukn-e-Alam, an obelisk in memory of Agnew and a Hindu temple. The famous Qasim Bagh and a stadium are located within the walls of the fort. A panoramic view of Multan City can be had from the highest point in the fort. City GatesPAK GATE:
This gate named Pak Gate not due to Pakistan, but because of the Saint Hazrat Musa Pak Shaheed. When he died on 33rd Shahban 1010 H, Firstly he was buried in Uch Shareef near his Father Syed Hamid Gunj Buksh. Then when his son saw his Grand Father in Dream Instructing him to get Musa out from his foot side, then he was buried again at "Moza Mungay Hatti". After 15 years his son has another dream that lives in Multan to give Musa back to Multan. Your followers have full faith on you. So, they bring you to Multan. The Gate used to bring your body at that time is still called Pak Gate. 300 feet inside Pak Gate you will find the Mazar of Hazart Musa Pak Shaheed. DEHLI GATE:
This Gate is named "Delhi" as this faces towards the Delhi-India and this road leads towards Delhi. During Mughal Period, when ever the Kings or State Guests visits Multan they entered through this gate.
The Mazar of Rukn-i-Alam is the glory of Multan. When the city is approached from any side the most prominent thing which can be seen from miles all around is a huge dome. This dome is the Shrine of Sheikh Rukn-ud-Din Abul Fath commonly known by the title Rukn-e-Alam (pillar of the world). The tomb is located on the south-West side of the Fort premises. In beauty and grandeur so other dome perhaps equals it this elegant building is an octagon, 51 feet 9 inches in diameter internally, with walls 41 feet 4 inches high and 13 feet 3 inches thick, supported at the angles by sloping towers. Over this is a smaller octagon 25 feet 8 inches, on the exterior side, and 26 feet 1 0 inches high, leaving a narrow passage all round the top of the lower story for the Moazzan, or public caller to prayers. The whole is surmounted by hemispherical dome of 58 feet external diameter. The total height of the building, including a plinth of 3 feet, is 100 feet. As it stands on the high ground, the total height above the road level is 150 feet. This contributes materially to the majestic and colossal appearance of the tomb, making it the most prominent object of view to the visitors. Besides its religious importance, the mausoleum is also of considerable archaeological value as its dome is reputed to be the second largest in the world after 'Gol Gumbad' of Bijapur (India), which is the largest. Bahauddin Zakria
The prime attraction of the Fort area is the Mausoleum of Sheikh Baha-udDin Zakariya (the ornament of the Faith) generally known as Bahawal Haq and Sheikh Rukn-ud-Din Abul Fath, commonly known by the title of Rukn-i-Alam (pillar of the World). The lofty domes of these Mausoleums are visible, from miles and dominate the skyline of Multan. Bahawal Haq as a saint is respected throughout the country particularly in Southern Punjab and Sind.
Sheikh Baha-ud-Din Zakariya known as Bahawal Haq, was born at Kot Kehror a town of District Laiah near Multan, around 1170 AD His father died when he was a child, but he grew in wisdom and studied in Turan and Iran. He received religious instructions from Sheikh Shahab-ud-Din Suhrawardy in Baghdad and became his Khalifa. He was on terms of great friendship with Sheikh Farid Shakar Ganj and lived with him for a long time. History
The history of Multan prior to the arrival of Arabs in the 8th century A.D is obscure. Alexander is said to have passed through the district in about 325-326 B.C, but his route cannot be traced. It is probable that Multan was the city of Malli which Alexander stormed and where he was wounded.
About 327 B.C. the Macedonians were ousted by Chandragupta and the Maurya dynasty remained in power till the beginning of the second century A.D. From 30 B.C to 470 A.D., the Kushan dynasty ruled over the area, and from 470 A.D to 550 A.D., the White Huns are believed to have held sway.
Multan figured as the capital of an important province of the kingdom of Sindh in the writings of the early Arab geographers. At the time the Arabs first came to Sindh, the country was ruled by Raja Chach, a Brahmin. Multan was conquered by Arabs under Muhammad Bin Qasim in 712 A.D. after defeating Raja Dahir, a descendant of Chach.
Thereafter, the town remained for the three centuries the out post of Islam in India, under the caliph of Baghdad. It remained nominally subject to the Lodhies, Ghaznavids and Muhammad Ghauri upto the end of 12th century. From the beginning of the 13th century for the next three centuries, the history of Multan is practically the history of the incursions from western and central Asia.
In 1397 came the invasion by Taimur, whose troops occupied Uch and Multan, sacked Tulamba, and raided the Kohkhars of Ravi and past across Biass to Pakpattan and Delhi. In 1528, comes the peace full transfer of the province of Multan to the emissaries of the Mughal Emperor Babar. Under the Mughal Emperors, Multan enjoyed a long period of peace between 1528-1748 and was known as Dar-ul-Aman.
In 1752 Multan became a province owing allegiance to Afghan kings. It was then ruled by Pathan governors and Daud Putra chiefs of Bahawlpur for some time. After 1771, Multan witnessed continued warfare between Sikhs and the Nawabs of Multan. Between 1818 and 1845, it remained under the Sikh rule and finally came under the British rule in 1849.
Multan, however, lost its very important position as soon as the British stronghold over the sub-continent grew stronger and stronger. Although peace prevailed in the region but no real progress was made. When independence was achieved in 1947 Multan was a forgotten region. There was no industry; no higher and professional educational Institutions, no high standard hospitals; so much so that there was not even a single recreation park in the whole of the city. It looked more like a town though its population was nearly one lakh. The site of the Old Fort was in ruins. Thorny bushes and ditches were in plenty whispering the awful tale of its ruination, Majority of the roads were unmetalled and the sewerage system too defective to explain. The history of the district since independence is mainly connected with the expansion of facilities except a few minor changes such as one of its districts, that is, D.G. Khan has been declared as the Divisional Headquarter and some of its Tehsils such as Vehari as the new District etc.Taken From:http://www.bzu.edu.pk/region.html