Mecca(Arabic: Makkah), the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad(may the blessing and peace of Allah be upon him and his family), is the holiest city of the Islamic faith. According to Islamic tradition, Muslims around the world must faceMecca during their daily prayers. Every year, during the last month of the Islamic calendar, more than 1 million Muslims make a pilgrimage, or hajj, to Mecca.
Capital of the Hejaz province of Saudi Arabia, Mecca is located 73 km east of Jidda, its port on the Red Sea, and about 460 km south of Medina. The city is almost 360 meters raised from the sea level, as it is 21 degree and 25 minutes circled breadth at the north part, 39 degree and 49 minutes longitude at eastern part .
The sacred city of Mecca is situated on inclined valley surrounded by dried and barren hills, interlaced rocks and mountains, before then the city was formed from different small districts and narrow lanes. But today it has became a big constructed city which is surrounded by numerous of mountains which are almost 45 mountains; those mountains are between big and small ones. Verily, this was made in order to be a well-fortified preventor of the city. Also there are many defiles and balconies which are almost 16 defiles. The sacred premises of Mecca can be estimated as 550300 square meters including distance of Madina, likewise circle of sacred premises is almost 127 kilometers which boundaries are close to the Honored Ka'abah in some certain areas and far in some areas. But the most far boundaries is Al-A'ashash area (which is called Al-Hudaibiya) or Shumaisi, this place boundary is 2 kilometers far from Ka'abah and the flags (which are boundaries) and surrounded the sacred premises are 9340 flags, knowing that all has been destroyed except eleven among them.
FOUNDING OF THE CITY:
Indeed, Prophet Ibrahim Al-Khalil was the first person to build the Holy Ka'aba, whereas he putted boundaries of the sacred premises by guidance of the Jabra'il (peace be upon him) after he arrived in the city with his son Ismail and his wife as well. This happened in year 1892 A.D. The House was renewed by Prophet Ismail (peace be upon him) after his father Abraham (Ibrahim) (peace be upon him), then Adnan bun Adad, then Qusai bun Kilab, then Quraish and then the Holy Prophet (may the blessing and peace of Allah be upon him and his pure progeny). But before then, the House which people do visit for their pilgrimage was built by clay. This was before the flood, until the Almighty Allah made the place ready and prepared it for Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) when he wanted to construct the House. The city was a passing way of the caravans as well as a business market. Mecca is named as Mecca due to the fact that it removes the sinner from the city. It was also named as Bacca (because it gathers necks of the tyrants and break them) or it means crowd. This sacred city has other names, of those names are: Ummul Quraa, (means origin or source of the villages), Ummu Rahim (means where people do seek mercy for one another), Kuthi, (the word Kuthi is name of land in the city), An-Naasah, some said it Al-Bassah (means it destroys and kills he who become an atheist in that city), The Ancient House, The Land of Peace, Ma'aad, Al-Hatimah and others.
THE SACRED PREMISES OF MECCA AND ITS BOUNDARIES:
The half diameter of the sacred premises of Mecca is almost 78552 kilometers from all sides of Mecca and the center of this circle of the Honored Ka'abah and boundaries of this sacred premises is situated at northern part of the Holy city of Madina / at a place called At-Tan'eem or Al-Umrah mosque, and the distance between this place and sacred premises can be estimated as 7 kilometers. And at the western part of Jiddah / is at a place called Al-Alamain or Al-Hudaibiya, the distance between the place and the sacred premises can also be estimated as 18 kilometers. As to the eastern part of Najd / it is at a place called Al-Ja'ranah, and the distance between that place and the Sacred Mosque is almost 14,5 kilometers. Likewise at the southern part of Arafah, at a place called Namrah, the distance between it and the Sacred Mosque is estimated as 20 kilometers.
FROM THE HISTORY MEMORY:
Abraha Al-Habashi attacked Holy Mecca with his soldiers in year of Elephant known as (Aamul Fil).
- Qusai bun Kilaab took over ruling of Mecca and made symposium house which was built by him as center for his government as he also arranged a water wheel of Al-Hajj to Kaabah.
The Holy Ka'abah burnt during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet as well as before his sacred mission which resulted cracking of the buildings, weakness of its stones, then Quraish became confused about it, hesitating as to whether to destroy it or no, they were in this situation then Al-Walid bun Al-Mughirah moved forward and plucked out the first stone, Knowing that the Holy Prophet also participated in transmitting the stones with the transmitters of Hashimmittes while he was young man at that time. He was the one who putted the Black Stone at its right place, and then it settled with the blessing of his holy effort. Indeed, this happened after disagreement occurred among the people, then they seek decision from first man to enter in the Sacred House, so lucky that he the Holy Prophet (may the blessing and peace of Allah be upon him and his progeny) was the first man to enter in the Holy Ka'abh, then they all agreed to seek his decision. Details of this story is mentioned in the history books.
- Mecca was conquered in the 8th year A.H.
- The Holy Ka'abah was burnt due to a war occurred between Ibn Zubair - who seeked protection by Ka'abah - and Yazid's leader who is Al-Hasin bun Al-Namir who threw fire by mangonel then fire scattered and burnt the Holy Ka'abah. The same thing happened in year (73 A.H.) by the pilgrims.
- During the time of Al-Ma'mun (in year 198 - 218 A.H.) the Alawids revolted with the leadership of Husain Al-Aftas and Ibrahim bun Musa, then they dominated Mecca and Medina and chose two people from the Alawids in order to protect Mecca.
ـ- In year 304 A.H. the Camathians blocked way in front of the pilgrims, then (1500) Camathians battled against Mecca and slaughtered thousands of inhabitants as they plundered the Black Stone of the Ka'abah and took it to Kufah and fixed it at (maqaam) Site of Ibrahim Al-Khalil and called people to come and perform their pilgrimage at Kufah's mosque instead of Mecca.
- The Nobles of Al-Musawids ruled Mecca between (951 - 968) years of Hijri.
- In (994 - 1039 A.H. )Abul Futuh declared Caliphate for him self, verily, this was done by him because the Shurafa'a of Al-Musawids won an independence as well as their disobedience to the Fatimi Caliph in Egypt. This incident occurred in year (1011 A.H).
- During the time of the Noble (Al-Qatada) and in Caliphate time of Al-Muqtadir in Baghdad the Crusaders attacked the Holy Mecca and blocked ways of the pilgrims and tried to prevailed on the both holy cities (Mecca and Madina).
-The Wahhabism forces occupied the Holy Mecca with the leadership of Sultan bun Bajad after withdrawal of king Husain from the city. This happened in year 1924 A.D.
THE MOSQUES OF
1- The Sacred Mosque: and it contains:
a - The Holy Ka'aba: the most important holy features are: (Al-Hajarul Aswad) The Black Stone, Ar-Ruknul Yamaani, Ar-Ruknaani Ash-Shami wal Iraqi, Babul Ka'aba, Al-Mustajaar, Al-Multazim and Ash-Shazrawan;.b-(Hajar Isma'il) Isma'il Stone;c-(Maqaam Ibrahim) Site of Abraham;d- Zamzam;.e- As-Safa wal Mar'wah
2-(Masjid As-Shajarah) The mosque of Tree
3- Masjid Al-Mu'ris) Al-Mu'ris mosque
4- Masjid Aa'isha) A'aisha mosque
5- (Masjisd Arq Al-Dhabbah) Arq Al-Dhabbah mosque
6- (Masjidul Khif) Al-Khif mosque
7- (Masjid Namrah) Namrah mosque
8-(Masjid Ibrahim Al-Khalil) Abraham Khalil's mosque
9- (Masjidul-Ijabah) (Al-Ijabah mosque
10- (Masjid Al-Bai'ah) Al-Bai'atu mosque.
11- (Masjid Al-Tan'eem) Al-Tan'eem mosque
12-Masjid Al-Ja'ranah) Al-Ja'ranah mosque
13- (Masjid Al-Mur'salaat) Al-Mur'salaat mosque
14- (Masjid Al-Haras) Al-Haras mosque
15- (Masjid Khadijah) Khadijah's mosque
16-(Masjid Dar Al-Ar'qam) Dar Al-Ar'qam's mosque
17- (Masjid Zi Tuwa) Zi Tuwa mosque
18- (Masjid Ar-Rayah) Ar-Rayah mosque
19-(Masjid Al-Muzdalifah) Muzdalifa mosque
20- (Masjid As-Sarar) As-Sarar mosque
21- (Masjid Salsabil) Salsabil mosque
22 -(Masjid Al-Kabsh ) Al-Kabsh mosque
THE HOLY PLACES IN MECCA:
The holy places of the city are as follows: Birthplace of the Holy Prophet ,Sayyidatu Khadijah's house, Al-Ar'qam house, Graveyard of Al-Mu'ali, Birthplace of Sayyidatu Fatimah (peace be upon her), Imam Ali's birthplace (peace be upon him), Grave of Aaminah bintu Wahab, the Holy Prophet's mother, Jabalu An-Nur, Ghar Hiraa, Dar Al-Khizraan.
THE APPOINTED PLACES OF
The appointed places are: (Wadil Atiq) Valley of Atiq which is 94 kilometers far from Mecca at the east part of it), Yalamlam (is also 94 kilometers far from Mecca at the southern part), Al-Juhfah (320 kilometers far at the northern part), Zul Hulifah (464 kilometers far at northern part as well), Qar'nul Manazil (94 kilometers far from the east part of Mecca).
Taken from :www.rafed.net/towns/english/maka.htmlmb-soft.com/believe/txh/mecca.htm