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Iraq in preparation for a strike on Iran

the iran-iraq war

 The contemporary military history in the cast of Bein-al-Nahrin has always experienced various conflicts and border disputes among the neighboring governments. Major wars and the signed treaties in the region so as to end the hostility can be outlined as follows:

Among them, the oldest one dates back to the Otmanidae government ruled by Soltan Muhammad 11 in 1453 and establishment of the Safavid dynasty in 1502 which continued for 400 years. To this respect, the first peace treaty refers back to 1555 signed twenty years later. The treaty was followed by further treaties including Zahab (1639), Kurdan (1746), Arz-e-Room 1 (1823), Arz-e-Room II (1847), Tehran’ s Protocol (1911), Islambo’ s Protocol (1913), Commission for Setting Borders (1914), Agreement of 1937, and finally the Treaty of 1975 signed in OPEC summit Meeting in Algeria and identified as 1975 Agreement.

Although the Iraqi full-fledged attack on Iran lacked any rationality and logical foundation, it seemed to be justifiable for some reasons among which some are outlined as:

1- Provocation by the global hegemony led by the U.S. because of:

1. a- Threatened interests of the U.S. following the victory of the Islamic Revolution

1. b- U.S.A’s anger at the occupation of its embassy (Spy Nest) in Tehran,

1. c- U.S.A’s defeat in Tabas military operation.

2-The Iranian political state and weak authority of the interim government which entailed further weakness of the IR.Of Iran till Banisadr’ s topple

3-Shaky economic conditions originated from the U.S.A’s widespread embargo, consequences of the Revolution and fall in oil prices, etc

4-Chaotic military state during which the military power exclusive to the Army experienced further weakening, and various initiatives made like canceling the agreements for weapon purchase and shortening the duration of compulsory military service, etc added to the chaos.

5-Particular political circumstances in Iraq following the authority of the Baath Party by which decision-making enjoyed an integrated approach, which Resulted in superiority for Iraq.

6-Iraqi growing economy due to supports of many states, which enjoyed stable trend by the Persian Gulf War (Oil War),

7-Iraqi growing military state accompanied by further developments in terms of military units and mobilization of the Iraqi Army with sophisticated weaponry changed the military balance between Iran and Iraq in favor of the latter.

8-Expansionist policies of Saddam and the attempts to satisfy the U.S.A

the iran-iraq war

9-Direct and indirect supports of the Arab states to provoke and activate Iraq at the front line of countering with the Islamic Revolution.

Given the aforementioned reasons, motives behind the Iraqi attack on Iran can be plainly outlined as follows:

1- Absolute authority over Arvand River

2- Seizure of triple islands of greater and lesser Tunbs and Abumosa

3- Disintegration of Khuzestan province from the mainland

4- Reseizure of the Iranian western heights, especially Meimak

5- Overthrow of the newly-established Islamic Republic of Iran.

Prior to September 22nd, 1980, the Iraqi practical measures taken to initiate the aggression were:

1 - Frequent violation of the Iranian air, land and marine territories that altogether added up to 636 violations from April, 1979 to September, 1980 categorically including:

Spring 1979  

  14 cases

Summer 1979      

11 cases

Fall 1979     

 26 cases

Winter1979  

   32 cases

Spring1980

142 cases

Summer 1980

411 cases

The ascending trend of the violations obviously indicates the preparation of Iraqi regime to launch the war.

2- One-sided cancellation of the Algeria Peace Treaty in September, 1980. Thereby the Iraqi Army got prepared to launch one of the longest contemporary wars following the preparation of all political, economic and military grounds.


Source:

The book named: Atlas of Unforgettable Battles

Compilation: Staff Colonel Mojtaba Jafari


Other links:

Imam Khomeini’s key role in triumph of the Islamic Revolution (Part 1)

Imam Khomeini’s key role in triumph of the Islamic Revolution (Part 2)

Imam Khomeini’s key role in triumph of the Islamic Revolution (Part 3)

Imam Khomeini’s key role in triumph of the Islamic Revolution (Part 4)

Ideology of Iranian Revolution

The Province of Khuzestan

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Qasr-e-Shirin Defensive Operation (September 22nd, 1980)

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Analysis of the battles from September, 1980 to September, 1981

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