Ground Forces Operations in Eight years of Holy Defense
War is considered as an indispensable element of human life. As long as the balance of military power is dominant, sociopolitical interactions of states are always characterized by peaceful approach. In other words, diplomatic disputes progress in an atmosphere. However, following any attempts entailing weakness of either party, the strongholds and commitment cornerstones of any already inked peace treaties arc resorted to as an excuse to initiate another fight so as to secure superiority.
Iran, prior to its victory of Islamic Revolution in February ,1979, used to play the role of stability Island and powerful regional gendarme meeting the interests of U.S. hegemony. Balance of power existing between Iran and its neighboring states was so benefited by the former that it could not so easily pave the ground for Iran’s most powerful western neighbor to launch a full-fledged military attack in order to achieve its expansionist objectives.
Victory of the Islamic Revolution entailed destruction of political balance whereby U.S. interests were threatened. Local and foreign agents resorted to any means so that they could extinguish shinning lights of the newly-established Islamic Revolution on one hand, and trend of developments among the Iranian Army and Law enforcement forces (police and gendarmerie), which had played critical role in the victory of the Revolution by joining the people on the other, made Iraqi politicians and Army commanders feel superiority in the balance of power. Accordingly, the Iraqi Army launched a pre-scheduled and directly US-coordinated aggressive attack on Iran from the southern and western borders.
Contrary to the weakness in combat power and engagement of most of its forces in the Northwest fronts against anti-revolutionary forces, the Army of the IR.of Iran applied already-experienced military tactics and principles based on formerly-developed defense plans against possible Iraqi attacks and followed planning, monitoring and implementing any measures taken to defeat suppress and chase the enemy in various stages.
Accompanied by the massive Army units, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, while getting organized with the collaboration of some revolutionary Army officers and carrying out various internal missions tried to play different roles combating the enemy in the looming situation.
Analysis of the socio-political developments coincided with the breakout and continuation of the War particularly in its early years plainly proves that the operating forces were deprived of any required supports originated from all government sectors. Banisadar, while being president and enjoying the authority of "Commander-in-Chief borne the responsibility to lead the War while he was not much qualified in terms of military knowledge and had particular political beliefs. Furthermore, he was reluctant to admit the integration of civilian forces in the Guard Corps and make the enemy withdraw from the territory of the Iran side-by-side the Army. Never could he mobilize the operating forces particularly the Army such that they themselves defeat the enemy contrary to many shortages they used to encounter. Not only did he hinder the mobilization of civilian forces, but he also prevented application of the existing facilities by the Army. Some cases of such negative measures have been cited in the diary kept by the supreme commander-in-chief.
Given the circumstances, the highest expectation the nation had from the Army, as the sole force which could save the country, was confined to fix the enemy and prevent further invasive advances which could entail disintegration Khuzestan province from the mainland and damage if the invasion continued.
The sacrifices made to the Revolution by the personnel of the I.R. of Iran’s Army specially those of its "the Honorable Generation" which like "Hor" were leading the disturbed and stormy ship of such a powerful army force not only made the enemy fail to achieve its pre-determined political objectives but also it failed to meet those of military ones and was forced to be deployed and fixed in highly disadvantageous positions in most of the operational areas.
Such unwanted stop besides long-distance supply routes of the enemy encountered with assaults launched by the Iranian forces made the Iraqi forces lose their offensive morale and give up their positions following any comprehensive attacks made by the Iranian forces.
Following the withdrawal of the Iraqi forces from the Iranian territories, the war continued and extended to the Iraqi territories due to the denial of Iran’s rights, though various resolutions on stopping the War were issued. It was not unlikely that an Iraqi soldier would resist further on his own and the Iraqi authorities being supported in the international arena would resort t any possible means without any hesitations so as to protect their land.
Consequently, in spite of capturing vast areas in Iraqi territories, the Islamic Iran’s military lost its strength because of failure to achieve any definite and decisive objectives and the exhaustion of forces Resulted from a number of full-fledged attacks made on the enemy. On the contrary, Iraq being increasingly mobilized in terms of both weapon and man-power could recapture its occupied areas in the last year of the War and launched two comprehensive attacks in the southern and western fronts on the Iranian forces.
The acceptance of the Resolution number 598 and courageous resistance of the Iranian forces including the Army, Revolutionary Guard Corps and civilian voluntary forces made the enemy withdraw and subsequent to the implementation of the Resolution and declaration of Iraq as the aggressor in the War, a highly memorable era in the honorable history of the Islamic Iran started and a golden page was added to the history of this land.
A book named: Atlas of Unforgettable Battles
Compilation: Staff Colonel Mojtaba Jafari
Imam Khomeini’s key role in triumph of the Islamic Revolution (Part 1)
Imam Khomeini’s key role in triumph of the Islamic Revolution (Part 2)
Imam Khomeini’s key role in triumph of the Islamic Revolution (Part 3)
Imam Khomeini’s key role in triumph of the Islamic Revolution (Part 4)
Concept Behind the Islamic Republic of Iran